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 Jun 23, 2019, 11:46:19 PM (5 years ago)
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 ADT, armeh, astexperimental, enum, forallpointerdecay, jacob/cs343translation, jenkinssandbox, master, newast, newastuniqueexpr, pthreademulation, qualifiedEnum
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 397edf7, 54dd994, 70a141d4, c1ea11b
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 e764ee1
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doc/user/user.tex
re764ee1 r9e0a360 11 11 %% Created On : Wed Apr 6 14:53:29 2016 12 12 %% Last Modified By : Peter A. Buhr 13 %% Last Modified On : S un May 5 18:24:50201914 %% Update Count : 3 48913 %% Last Modified On : Sat Jun 15 16:29:45 2019 14 %% Update Count : 3847 15 15 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 16 16 … … 254 254 \begin{lstlisting} 255 255 ®forall( otype T )® T identity( T val ) { return val; } 256 int forty_two = identity( 42 ); 256 int forty_two = identity( 42 ); §\C{// T is bound to int, forty\_two == 42}§ 257 257 \end{lstlisting} 258 258 % extending the C type system with parametric polymorphism and overloading, as opposed to the \Index*[C++]{\CC{}} approach of objectoriented extensions. … … 282 282 283 283 double key = 5.0, vals[10] = { /* 10 sorted floating values */ }; 284 double * val = (double *)bsearch( &key, vals, 10, sizeof(vals[0]), comp ); 284 double * val = (double *)bsearch( &key, vals, 10, sizeof(vals[0]), comp ); §\C{// search sorted array}§ 285 285 \end{lstlisting} 286 286 which can be augmented simply with a polymorphic, typesafe, \CFAoverloaded wrappers: … … 291 291 292 292 forall( otype T  { int ?<?( T, T ); } ) unsigned int bsearch( T key, const T * arr, size_t size ) { 293 T * result = bsearch( key, arr, size ); 294 return result ? result  arr : size; } 295 296 double * val = bsearch( 5.0, vals, 10 ); 293 T * result = bsearch( key, arr, size ); §\C{// call first version}§ 294 return result ? result  arr : size; } §\C{// pointer subtraction includes sizeof(T)}§ 295 296 double * val = bsearch( 5.0, vals, 10 ); §\C{// selection based on return type}§ 297 297 int posn = bsearch( 5.0, vals, 10 ); 298 298 \end{lstlisting} … … 306 306 \begin{lstlisting} 307 307 forall( dtype T  sized(T) ) T * malloc( void ) { return (T *)malloc( sizeof(T) ); } 308 int * ip = malloc(); 308 int * ip = malloc(); §\C{// select type and size from lefthand side}§ 309 309 double * dp = malloc(); 310 310 struct S {...} * sp = malloc(); … … 318 318 \begin{cfa} 319 319 char ®abs®( char ); 320 extern "C" { int ®abs®( int ); } 320 extern "C" { int ®abs®( int ); } §\C{// use default C routine for int}§ 321 321 long int ®abs®( long int ); 322 322 long long int ®abs®( long long int ); … … 426 426 \begin{cfa} 427 427 #ifndef __CFORALL__ 428 #include <stdio.h>§\indexc{stdio.h}§ 428 #include <stdio.h>§\indexc{stdio.h}§ §\C{// C header file}§ 429 429 #else 430 #include <fstream>§\indexc{fstream}§ 430 #include <fstream>§\indexc{fstream}§ §\C{// \CFA header file}§ 431 431 #endif 432 432 \end{cfa} … … 512 512 Keyword clashes are accommodated by syntactic transformations using the \CFA backquote escapemechanism: 513 513 \begin{cfa} 514 int ®`®otype®`® = 3; 514 int ®`®otype®`® = 3; §\C{// make keyword an identifier}§ 515 515 double ®`®forall®`® = 3.5; 516 516 \end{cfa} … … 523 523 \begin{cfa} 524 524 // include file uses the CFA keyword "with". 525 #if ! defined( with ) 526 #define with ®`®with®`® 525 #if ! defined( with ) §\C{// nesting ?}§ 526 #define with ®`®with®`® §\C{// make keyword an identifier}§ 527 527 #define __CFA_BFD_H__ 528 528 #endif 529 529 530 ®#include_next <bfdlink.h> 530 ®#include_next <bfdlink.h> §\C{// must have internal check for multiple expansion}§ 531 531 ® 532 532 #if defined( with ) && defined( __CFA_BFD_H__ ) §\C{// reset only if set}§ … … 544 544 Numeric constants are extended to allow \Index{underscore}s\index{constant!underscore}, \eg: 545 545 \begin{cfa} 546 2®_®147®_®483®_®648; 547 56®_®ul; 548 0®_®377; 549 0x®_®ff®_®ff; 550 0x®_®ef3d®_®aa5c; 551 3.141®_®592®_®654; 552 10®_®e®_®+1®_®00; 553 0x®_®ff®_®ff®_®p®_®3; 554 0x®_®1.ffff®_®ffff®_®p®_®128®_®l; 555 L®_®§"\texttt{\textbackslash{x}}§®_®§\texttt{ff}§®_®§\texttt{ee}"§; 546 2®_®147®_®483®_®648; §\C{// decimal constant}§ 547 56®_®ul; §\C{// decimal unsigned long constant}§ 548 0®_®377; §\C{// octal constant}§ 549 0x®_®ff®_®ff; §\C{// hexadecimal constant}§ 550 0x®_®ef3d®_®aa5c; §\C{// hexadecimal constant}§ 551 3.141®_®592®_®654; §\C{// floating constant}§ 552 10®_®e®_®+1®_®00; §\C{// floating constant}§ 553 0x®_®ff®_®ff®_®p®_®3; §\C{// hexadecimal floating}§ 554 0x®_®1.ffff®_®ffff®_®p®_®128®_®l; §\C{// hexadecimal floating long constant}§ 555 L®_®§"\texttt{\textbackslash{x}}§®_®§\texttt{ff}§®_®§\texttt{ee}"§; §\C{// wide character constant}§ 556 556 \end{cfa} 557 557 The rules for placement of underscores are: … … 612 612 (Does not make sense for ©do©©while©.) 613 613 \begin{cfa} 614 if ( ®int x = f()® ) ... 615 if ( ®int x = f(), y = g()® ) ... 616 if ( ®int x = f(), y = g(); x < y® ) ... 614 if ( ®int x = f()® ) ... §\C{// x != 0}§ 615 if ( ®int x = f(), y = g()® ) ... §\C{// x != 0 \&\& y != 0}§ 616 if ( ®int x = f(), y = g(); x < y® ) ... §\C{// relational expression}§ 617 617 if ( ®struct S { int i; } x = { f() }; x.i < 4® ) §\C{// relational expression}§ 618 618 619 while ( ®int x = f()® ) ... 620 while ( ®int x = f(), y = g()® ) ... 619 while ( ®int x = f()® ) ... §\C{// x != 0}§ 620 while ( ®int x = f(), y = g()® ) ... §\C{// x != 0 \&\& y != 0}§ 621 621 while ( ®int x = f(), y = g(); x < y® ) ... §\C{// relational expression}§ 622 622 while ( ®struct S { int i; } x = { f() }; x.i < 4® ) ... §\C{// relational expression}§ … … 892 892 \begin{cfa} 893 893 switch ( x ) { 894 ®int y = 1;® 895 ®x = 7;® 894 ®int y = 1;® §\C{// unreachable initialization}§ 895 ®x = 7;® §\C{// unreachable code without label/branch}§ 896 896 case 0: ... 897 897 ... 898 ®int z = 0;® 898 ®int z = 0;® §\C{// unreachable initialization, cannot appear after case}§ 899 899 z = 2; 900 900 case 1: 901 ®x = z;® 901 ®x = z;® §\C{// without fall through, z is uninitialized}§ 902 902 } 903 903 \end{cfa} … … 937 937 ®case 5: 938 938 ... 939 ®fallthru®; 939 ®fallthru®; §\C{// explicit fall through}§ 940 940 case 7: 941 941 ... 942 ®break® 942 ®break® §\C{// explicit end of switch (redundant)}§ 943 943 default: 944 944 j = 3; … … 961 961 \begin{cfa} 962 962 switch ( x ) { 963 ®int i = 0;® 963 ®int i = 0;® §\C{// allowed only at start}§ 964 964 case 0: 965 965 ... 966 ®int j = 0;® 966 ®int j = 0;® §\C{// disallowed}§ 967 967 case 1: 968 968 { 969 ®int k = 0;® 969 ®int k = 0;® §\C{// allowed at different nesting levels}§ 970 970 ... 971 ®case 2:® 971 ®case 2:® §\C{// disallow case in nested statements}§ 972 972 } 973 973 ... … … 1019 1019 \begin{cfa} 1020 1020 switch ( i ) { 1021 case ®1~5:® 1021 case ®1~5:® §\C{// 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}§ 1022 1022 ... 1023 case ®10~15:® 1023 case ®10~15:® §\C{// 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15}§ 1024 1024 ... 1025 1025 } … … 1152 1152 Grouping heterogeneous data into \newterm{aggregate}s (structure/union) is a common programming practice, and an aggregate can be further organized into more complex structures, such as arrays and containers: 1153 1153 \begin{cfa} 1154 struct S { 1155 char c; 1154 struct S { §\C{// aggregate}§ 1155 char c; §\C{// fields}§ 1156 1156 int i; 1157 1157 double d; … … 1162 1162 \begin{cfa} 1163 1163 void f( S s ) { 1164 ®s.®c; ®s.®i; ®s.®d; 1164 ®s.®c; ®s.®i; ®s.®d; §\C{// access containing fields}§ 1165 1165 } 1166 1166 \end{cfa} … … 1169 1169 \begin{C++} 1170 1170 struct S { 1171 char c; 1171 char c; §\C{// fields}§ 1172 1172 int i; 1173 1173 double d; 1174 void f() { 1175 ®this>®c; ®this>®i; ®this>®d; 1174 void f() { §\C{// implicit ``this'' aggregate}§ 1175 ®this>®c; ®this>®i; ®this>®d; §\C{// access containing fields}§ 1176 1176 } 1177 1177 } … … 1181 1181 \begin{cfa} 1182 1182 struct T { double m, n; }; 1183 int S::f( T & t ) { 1184 c; i; d; 1185 ®t.®m; ®t.®n; 1183 int S::f( T & t ) { §\C{// multiple aggregate parameters}§ 1184 c; i; d; §\C{\color{red}// this{\textgreater}.c, this{\textgreater}.i, this{\textgreater}.d}§ 1185 ®t.®m; ®t.®n; §\C{// must qualify}§ 1186 1186 } 1187 1187 \end{cfa} … … 1190 1190 Hence, the qualified fields become variables with the sideeffect that it is easier to optimizing field references in a block. 1191 1191 \begin{cfa} 1192 void f( S & this ) ®with ( this )® { 1193 c; i; d; 1192 void f( S & this ) ®with ( this )® { §\C{// with statement}§ 1193 c; i; d; §\C{\color{red}// this.c, this.i, this.d}§ 1194 1194 } 1195 1195 \end{cfa} 1196 1196 with the generality of opening multiple aggregateparameters: 1197 1197 \begin{cfa} 1198 void f( S & s, T & t ) ®with ( s, t )® { 1199 c; i; d; 1200 m; n; 1198 void f( S & s, T & t ) ®with ( s, t )® { §\C{// multiple aggregate parameters}§ 1199 c; i; d; §\C{\color{red}// s.c, s.i, s.d}§ 1200 m; n; §\C{\color{red}// t.m, t.n}§ 1201 1201 } 1202 1202 \end{cfa} … … 1220 1220 struct T { int ®i®; int k; int m; } t, w; 1221 1221 with ( s, t ) { 1222 j + k; 1223 m = 5.0; 1224 m = 1; 1225 int a = m; 1226 double b = m; 1227 int c = s.i + t.i; 1228 (double)m; 1222 j + k; §\C{// unambiguous, s.j + t.k}§ 1223 m = 5.0; §\C{// unambiguous, t.m = 5.0}§ 1224 m = 1; §\C{// unambiguous, s.m = 1}§ 1225 int a = m; §\C{// unambiguous, a = s.i }§ 1226 double b = m; §\C{// unambiguous, b = t.m}§ 1227 int c = s.i + t.i; §\C{// unambiguous, qualification}§ 1228 (double)m; §\C{// unambiguous, cast}§ 1229 1229 } 1230 1230 \end{cfa} … … 1236 1236 There is an interesting problem between parameters and the functionbody ©with©, \eg: 1237 1237 \begin{cfa} 1238 void ?{}( S & s, int i ) with ( s ) { 1239 ®s.i = i;® j = 3; m = 5.5; 1238 void ?{}( S & s, int i ) with ( s ) { §\C{// constructor}§ 1239 ®s.i = i;® j = 3; m = 5.5; §\C{// initialize fields}§ 1240 1240 } 1241 1241 \end{cfa} … … 1256 1256 Finally, a cast may be used to disambiguate among overload variables in a ©with© expression: 1257 1257 \begin{cfa} 1258 with ( w ) { ... } 1259 with ( (S)w ) { ... } 1258 with ( w ) { ... } §\C{// ambiguous, same name and no context}§ 1259 with ( (S)w ) { ... } §\C{// unambiguous, cast}§ 1260 1260 \end{cfa} 1261 1261 and ©with© expressions may be complex expressions with type reference (see Section~\ref{s:References}) to aggregate: 1262 1262 % \begin{cfa} 1263 1263 % struct S { int i, j; } sv; 1264 % with ( sv ) { 1264 % with ( sv ) { §\C{// implicit reference}§ 1265 1265 % S & sr = sv; 1266 % with ( sr ) { 1266 % with ( sr ) { §\C{// explicit reference}§ 1267 1267 % S * sp = &sv; 1268 % with ( *sp ) { 1269 % i = 3; j = 4; 1268 % with ( *sp ) { §\C{// computed reference}§ 1269 % i = 3; j = 4; §\C{\color{red}// sp{\textgreater}i, sp{\textgreater}j}§ 1270 1270 % } 1271 % i = 2; j = 3; 1271 % i = 2; j = 3; §\C{\color{red}// sr.i, sr.j}§ 1272 1272 % } 1273 % i = 1; j = 2; 1273 % i = 1; j = 2; §\C{\color{red}// sv.i, sv.j}§ 1274 1274 % } 1275 1275 % \end{cfa} … … 1279 1279 class C { 1280 1280 int i, j; 1281 int mem() { 1282 i = 1; 1283 j = 2; 1281 int mem() { §\C{\color{red}// implicit "this" parameter}§ 1282 i = 1; §\C{\color{red}// this>i}§ 1283 j = 2; §\C{\color{red}// this>j}§ 1284 1284 } 1285 1285 } … … 1288 1288 \begin{cfa} 1289 1289 struct S { int i, j; }; 1290 int mem( S & ®this® ) { 1291 ®this.®i = 1; 1290 int mem( S & ®this® ) { §\C{// explicit "this" parameter}§ 1291 ®this.®i = 1; §\C{// "this" is not elided}§ 1292 1292 ®this.®j = 2; 1293 1293 } … … 1297 1297 \CFA provides a ©with© clause/statement (see Pascal~\cite[\S~4.F]{Pascal}) to elided the "©this.©" by opening a scope containing field identifiers, changing the qualified fields into variables and giving an opportunity for optimizing qualified references. 1298 1298 \begin{cfa} 1299 int mem( S & this ) ®with( this )® { 1300 i = 1; 1301 j = 2; 1299 int mem( S & this ) ®with( this )® { §\C{// with clause}§ 1300 i = 1; §\C{\color{red}// this.i}§ 1301 j = 2; §\C{\color{red}// this.j}§ 1302 1302 } 1303 1303 \end{cfa} … … 1316 1316 struct S1 { ... } s1; 1317 1317 struct S2 { ... } s2; 1318 ®with( s1 )® { 1318 ®with( s1 )® { §\C{// with statement}§ 1319 1319 // access fields of s1 without qualification 1320 ®with s2® { 1320 ®with s2® { §\C{// nesting}§ 1321 1321 // access fields of s1 and s2 without qualification 1322 1322 } … … 1373 1373 Nonlocal transfer can cause stack unwinding, \ie nonlocal routine termination, depending on the kind of raise. 1374 1374 \begin{cfa} 1375 exception_t E {}; 1375 exception_t E {}; §\C{// exception type}§ 1376 1376 void f(...) { 1377 ... throw E{}; ... 1378 ... throwResume E{}; ... 1377 ... throw E{}; ... §\C{// termination}§ 1378 ... throwResume E{}; ... §\C{// resumption}§ 1379 1379 } 1380 1380 try { … … 1442 1442 For example, a routine returning a \Index{pointer} to an array of integers is defined and used in the following way: 1443 1443 \begin{cfa} 1444 int ®(*®f®())[®5®]® {...}; 1445 ... ®(*®f®())[®3®]® += 1; 1444 int ®(*®f®())[®5®]® {...}; §\C{// definition}§ 1445 ... ®(*®f®())[®3®]® += 1; §\C{// usage}§ 1446 1446 \end{cfa} 1447 1447 Essentially, the return type is wrapped around the routine name in successive layers (like an \Index{onion}). … … 1635 1635 *x = 3; // implicit dereference 1636 1636 int * ®const® y = (int *)104; 1637 *y = *x; // implicit dereference1637 *y = *x; // implicit dereference 1638 1638 \end{cfa} 1639 1639 \end{tabular} … … 1649 1649 \hline 1650 1650 \begin{cfa} 1651 lda r1,100 1652 ld r2,(r1) 1653 lda r3,104 1654 st r2,(r3) 1651 lda r1,100 // load address of x 1652 ld r2,(r1) // load value of x 1653 lda r3,104 // load address of y 1654 st r2,(r3) // store x into y 1655 1655 \end{cfa} 1656 1656 & 1657 1657 \begin{cfa} 1658 1658 1659 ld r2,(100) 1660 1661 st r2,(104) 1659 ld r2,(100) // load value of x 1660 1661 st r2,(104) // store x into y 1662 1662 \end{cfa} 1663 1663 \end{tabular} … … 1673 1673 \begin{cfa} 1674 1674 int x, y, ®*® p1, ®*® p2, ®**® p3; 1675 p1 = ®&®x; 1676 p2 = p1; 1677 p1 = ®&®y; 1678 p3 = &p2; 1675 p1 = ®&®x; // p1 points to x 1676 p2 = p1; // p2 points to x 1677 p1 = ®&®y; // p1 points to y 1678 p3 = &p2; // p3 points to p2 1679 1679 \end{cfa} 1680 1680 & … … 1687 1687 For example, \Index*{Algol68}~\cite{Algol68} infers pointer dereferencing to select the best meaning for each pointer usage 1688 1688 \begin{cfa} 1689 p2 = p1 + x; 1689 p2 = p1 + x; §\C{// compiler infers *p2 = *p1 + x;}§ 1690 1690 \end{cfa} 1691 1691 Algol68 infers the following dereferencing ©*p2 = *p1 + x©, because adding the arbitrary integer value in ©x© to the address of ©p1© and storing the resulting address into ©p2© is an unlikely operation. … … 1695 1695 In C, objects of pointer type always manipulate the pointer object's address: 1696 1696 \begin{cfa} 1697 p1 = p2; 1698 p2 = p1 + x; 1697 p1 = p2; §\C{// p1 = p2\ \ rather than\ \ *p1 = *p2}§ 1698 p2 = p1 + x; §\C{// p2 = p1 + x\ \ rather than\ \ *p2 = *p1 + x}§ 1699 1699 \end{cfa} 1700 1700 even though the assignment to ©p2© is likely incorrect, and the programmer probably meant: 1701 1701 \begin{cfa} 1702 p1 = p2; 1703 ®*®p2 = ®*®p1 + x; 1702 p1 = p2; §\C{// pointer address assignment}§ 1703 ®*®p2 = ®*®p1 + x; §\C{// pointedto value assignment / operation}§ 1704 1704 \end{cfa} 1705 1705 The C semantics work well for situations where manipulation of addresses is the primary meaning and data is rarely accessed, such as storage management (©malloc©/©free©). … … 1718 1718 \begin{cfa} 1719 1719 int x, y, ®&® r1, ®&® r2, ®&&® r3; 1720 ®&®r1 = &x; 1721 ®&®r2 = &r1; 1722 ®&®r1 = &y; 1723 ®&&®r3 = ®&®&r2; 1720 ®&®r1 = &x; §\C{// r1 points to x}§ 1721 ®&®r2 = &r1; §\C{// r2 points to x}§ 1722 ®&®r1 = &y; §\C{// r1 points to y}§ 1723 ®&&®r3 = ®&®&r2; §\C{// r3 points to r2}§ 1724 1724 r2 = ((r1 + r2) * (r3  r1)) / (r3  15); §\C{// implicit dereferencing}§ 1725 1725 \end{cfa} … … 1737 1737 For a \CFA reference type, the cancellation on the lefthand side of assignment leaves the reference as an address (\Index{lvalue}): 1738 1738 \begin{cfa} 1739 (&®*®)r1 = &x; 1739 (&®*®)r1 = &x; §\C{// (\&*) cancel giving address in r1 not variable pointedto by r1}§ 1740 1740 \end{cfa} 1741 1741 Similarly, the address of a reference can be obtained for assignment or computation (\Index{rvalue}): 1742 1742 \begin{cfa} 1743 (&(&®*®)®*®)r3 = &(&®*®)r2; 1743 (&(&®*®)®*®)r3 = &(&®*®)r2; §\C{// (\&*) cancel giving address in r2, (\&(\&*)*) cancel giving address in r3}§ 1744 1744 \end{cfa} 1745 1745 Cancellation\index{cancellation!pointer/reference}\index{pointer!cancellation} works to arbitrary depth. … … 1749 1749 int x, *p1 = &x, **p2 = &p1, ***p3 = &p2, 1750 1750 &r1 = x, &&r2 = r1, &&&r3 = r2; 1751 ***p3 = 3; 1752 r3 = 3; 1753 **p3 = ...; 1754 &r3 = ...; 1755 *p3 = ...; 1756 &&r3 = ...; 1757 &&&r3 = p3; 1751 ***p3 = 3; §\C{// change x}§ 1752 r3 = 3; §\C{// change x, ***r3}§ 1753 **p3 = ...; §\C{// change p1}§ 1754 &r3 = ...; §\C{// change r1, (\&*)**r3, 1 cancellation}§ 1755 *p3 = ...; §\C{// change p2}§ 1756 &&r3 = ...; §\C{// change r2, (\&(\&*)*)*r3, 2 cancellations}§ 1757 &&&r3 = p3; §\C{// change r3 to p3, (\&(\&(\&*)*)*)r3, 3 cancellations}§ 1758 1758 \end{cfa} 1759 1759 Furthermore, both types are equally performant, as the same amount of dereferencing occurs for both types. … … 1762 1762 As for a pointer type, a reference type may have qualifiers: 1763 1763 \begin{cfa} 1764 const int cx = 5; 1765 const int & cr = cx; 1766 ®&®cr = &cx; 1767 cr = 7; 1768 int & const rc = x; 1769 ®&®rc = &x; 1770 const int & const crc = cx; 1771 crc = 7; 1772 ®&®crc = &cx; 1764 const int cx = 5; §\C{// cannot change cx;}§ 1765 const int & cr = cx; §\C{// cannot change what cr points to}§ 1766 ®&®cr = &cx; §\C{// can change cr}§ 1767 cr = 7; §\C{// error, cannot change cx}§ 1768 int & const rc = x; §\C{// must be initialized}§ 1769 ®&®rc = &x; §\C{// error, cannot change rc}§ 1770 const int & const crc = cx; §\C{// must be initialized}§ 1771 crc = 7; §\C{// error, cannot change cx}§ 1772 ®&®crc = &cx; §\C{// error, cannot change crc}§ 1773 1773 \end{cfa} 1774 1774 Hence, for type ©& const©, there is no pointer assignment, so ©&rc = &x© is disallowed, and \emph{the address value cannot be the null pointer unless an arbitrary pointer is coerced\index{coercion} into the reference}: 1775 1775 \begin{cfa} 1776 int & const cr = *0; 1776 int & const cr = *0; §\C{// where 0 is the int * zero}§ 1777 1777 \end{cfa} 1778 1778 Note, constant referencetypes do not prevent \Index{addressing errors} because of explicit storagemanagement: … … 1781 1781 cr = 5; 1782 1782 free( &cr ); 1783 cr = 7; 1783 cr = 7; §\C{// unsound pointer dereference}§ 1784 1784 \end{cfa} 1785 1785 … … 1806 1806 \begin{cfa} 1807 1807 int w, x, y, z, & ar[3] = { x, y, z }; §\C{// initialize array of references}§ 1808 &ar[1] = &w; 1809 typeof( ar[1] ) p; 1810 typeof( &ar[1] ) q; 1811 sizeof( ar[1] ) == sizeof( int ); 1812 sizeof( &ar[1] ) == sizeof( int *) 1808 &ar[1] = &w; §\C{// change reference array element}§ 1809 typeof( ar[1] ) p; §\C{// (gcc) is int, \ie the type of referenced object}§ 1810 typeof( &ar[1] ) q; §\C{// (gcc) is int \&, \ie the type of reference}§ 1811 sizeof( ar[1] ) == sizeof( int ); §\C{// is true, \ie the size of referenced object}§ 1812 sizeof( &ar[1] ) == sizeof( int *) §\C{// is true, \ie the size of a reference}§ 1813 1813 \end{cfa} 1814 1814 … … 1827 1827 Therefore, for pointer/reference initialization, the initializing value must be an address not a value. 1828 1828 \begin{cfa} 1829 int * p = &x; 1830 ®int * p = x;® 1831 int & r = x; 1829 int * p = &x; §\C{// assign address of x}§ 1830 ®int * p = x;® §\C{// assign value of x}§ 1831 int & r = x; §\C{// must have address of x}§ 1832 1832 \end{cfa} 1833 1833 Like the previous example with C pointerarithmetic, it is unlikely assigning the value of ©x© into a pointer is meaningful (again, a warning is usually given). … … 1838 1838 Similarly, when a reference type is used for a parameter/return type, the callsite argument does not require a reference operator for the same reason. 1839 1839 \begin{cfa} 1840 int & f( int & r ); 1841 z = f( x ) + f( y ); 1840 int & f( int & r ); §\C{// reference parameter and return}§ 1841 z = f( x ) + f( y ); §\C{// reference operator added, temporaries needed for call results}§ 1842 1842 \end{cfa} 1843 1843 Within routine ©f©, it is possible to change the argument by changing the corresponding parameter, and parameter ©r© can be locally reassigned within ©f©. … … 1866 1866 void f( int & r ); 1867 1867 void g( int * p ); 1868 f( 3 ); g( ®&®3 ); 1869 f( x + y ); g( ®&®(x + y) ); 1868 f( 3 ); g( ®&®3 ); §\C{// compiler implicit generates temporaries}§ 1869 f( x + y ); g( ®&®(x + y) ); §\C{// compiler implicit generates temporaries}§ 1870 1870 \end{cfa} 1871 1871 Essentially, there is an implicit \Index{rvalue} to \Index{lvalue} conversion in this case.\footnote{ … … 1878 1878 \begin{cfa} 1879 1879 void f( int i ); 1880 void (* fp)( int ); 1881 fp = f; 1882 fp = &f; 1883 fp = *f; 1884 fp(3); 1885 (*fp)(3); 1880 void (* fp)( int ); §\C{// routine pointer}§ 1881 fp = f; §\C{// reference initialization}§ 1882 fp = &f; §\C{// pointer initialization}§ 1883 fp = *f; §\C{// reference initialization}§ 1884 fp(3); §\C{// reference invocation}§ 1885 (*fp)(3); §\C{// pointer invocation}§ 1886 1886 \end{cfa} 1887 1887 While C's treatment of routine objects has similarity to inferring a reference type in initialization contexts, the examples are assignment not initialization, and all possible forms of assignment are possible (©f©, ©&f©, ©*f©) without regard for type. 1888 1888 Instead, a routine object should be referenced by a ©const© reference: 1889 1889 \begin{cfa} 1890 ®const® void (®&® fr)( int ) = f; 1891 fr = ... 1892 &fr = ...; 1893 fr( 3 ); 1894 (*fr)(3); 1890 ®const® void (®&® fr)( int ) = f; §\C{// routine reference}§ 1891 fr = ... §\C{// error, cannot change code}§ 1892 &fr = ...; §\C{// changing routine reference}§ 1893 fr( 3 ); §\C{// reference call to f}§ 1894 (*fr)(3); §\C{// error, incorrect type}§ 1895 1895 \end{cfa} 1896 1896 because the value of the routine object is a routine literal, \ie the routine code is normally immutable during execution.\footnote{ … … 1914 1914 int x, * px, ** ppx, *** pppx, **** ppppx; 1915 1915 int & rx = x, && rrx = rx, &&& rrrx = rrx ; 1916 x = rrrx; // rrrx is an lvalue with type int &&& (equivalent to x)1917 px = &rrrx; // starting from rrrx, &rrrx is an rvalue with type int *&&& (&x)1918 ppx = &&rrrx; // starting from &rrrx, &&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **&& (&rx)1919 pppx = &&&rrrx; // starting from &&rrrx, &&&rrrx is an rvalue with type int ***& (&rrx)1920 ppppx = &&&&rrrx; // starting from &&&rrrx, &&&&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **** (&rrrx)1916 x = rrrx; §\C[2.0in]{// rrrx is an lvalue with type int \&\&\& (equivalent to x)}§ 1917 px = &rrrx; §\C{// starting from rrrx, \&rrrx is an rvalue with type int *\&\&\& (\&x)}§ 1918 ppx = &&rrrx; §\C{// starting from \&rrrx, \&\&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **\&\& (\&rx)}§ 1919 pppx = &&&rrrx; §\C{// starting from \&\&rrrx, \&\&\&rrrx is an rvalue with type int ***\& (\&rrx)}§ 1920 ppppx = &&&&rrrx; §\C{// starting from \&\&\&rrrx, \&\&\&\&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **** (\&rrrx)}§ 1921 1921 \end{cfa} 1922 1922 The following example shows the second rule applied to different \Index{lvalue} contexts: … … 1924 1924 int x, * px, ** ppx, *** pppx; 1925 1925 int & rx = x, && rrx = rx, &&& rrrx = rrx ; 1926 rrrx = 2; // rrrx is an lvalue with type int &&& (equivalent to x)1927 &rrrx = px; // starting from rrrx, &rrrx is an rvalue with type int *&&& (rx)1928 &&rrrx = ppx; // starting from &rrrx, &&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **&& (rrx)1929 &&&rrrx = pppx; // starting from &&rrrx, &&&rrrx is an rvalue with type int ***& (rrrx)1926 rrrx = 2; §\C{// rrrx is an lvalue with type int \&\&\& (equivalent to x)}§ 1927 &rrrx = px; §\C{// starting from rrrx, \&rrrx is an rvalue with type int *\&\&\& (rx)}§ 1928 &&rrrx = ppx; §\C{// starting from \&rrrx, \&\&rrrx is an rvalue with type int **\&\& (rrx)}§ 1929 &&&rrrx = pppx; §\C{// starting from \&\&rrrx, \&\&\&rrrx is an rvalue with type int ***\& (rrrx)}\CRT§ 1930 1930 \end{cfa} 1931 1931 … … 1940 1940 \begin{cfa} 1941 1941 int x; 1942 x + 1; // lvalue variable (int) converts to rvalue for expression1942 x + 1; §\C[2.0in]{// lvalue variable (int) converts to rvalue for expression}§ 1943 1943 \end{cfa} 1944 1944 An rvalue has no type qualifiers (©cv©), so the lvalue qualifiers are dropped. … … 1950 1950 \begin{cfa} 1951 1951 int x, &r = x, f( int p ); 1952 x = ®r® + f( ®r® ); // lvalue reference converts to rvalue1952 x = ®r® + f( ®r® ); §\C{// lvalue reference converts to rvalue}§ 1953 1953 \end{cfa} 1954 1954 An rvalue has no type qualifiers (©cv©), so the reference qualifiers are dropped. … … 1957 1957 lvalue to reference conversion: \lstinline[deletekeywords=lvalue]@lvaluetype cv1 T@ converts to ©cv2 T &©, which allows implicitly converting variables to references. 1958 1958 \begin{cfa} 1959 int x, &r = ®x®, f( int & p ); // lvalue variable (int) convert to reference (int &)1960 f( ®x® ); // lvalue variable (int) convert to reference (int &)1959 int x, &r = ®x®, f( int & p ); §\C{// lvalue variable (int) convert to reference (int \&)}§ 1960 f( ®x® ); §\C{// lvalue variable (int) convert to reference (int \&)}§ 1961 1961 \end{cfa} 1962 1962 Conversion can restrict a type, where ©cv1© $\le$ ©cv2©, \eg passing an ©int© to a ©const volatile int &©, which has low cost. … … 1968 1968 \begin{cfa} 1969 1969 int x, & f( int & p ); 1970 f( ®x + 3® ); // rvalue parameter (int) implicitly converts to lvalue temporary reference (int &)1971 ®&f®(...) = &x; // rvalue result (int &) implicitly converts to lvalue temporary reference (int &)1970 f( ®x + 3® ); §\C[1.5in]{// rvalue parameter (int) implicitly converts to lvalue temporary reference (int \&)}§ 1971 ®&f®(...) = &x; §\C{// rvalue result (int \&) implicitly converts to lvalue temporary reference (int \&)}\CRT§ 1972 1972 \end{cfa} 1973 1973 In both case, modifications to the temporary are inaccessible (\Index{warning}). … … 2158 2158 in both cases the type is assumed to be void as opposed to old style C defaults of int return type and unknown parameter types, respectively, as in: 2159 2159 \begin{cfa} 2160 [§\,§] g(); 2161 [ void ] g( void ); 2160 [§\,§] g(); §\C{// no input or output parameters}§ 2161 [ void ] g( void ); §\C{// no input or output parameters}§ 2162 2162 \end{cfa} 2163 2163 … … 2177 2177 \begin{cfa} 2178 2178 typedef int foo; 2179 int f( int (* foo) ); 2179 int f( int (* foo) ); §\C{// foo is redefined as a parameter name}§ 2180 2180 \end{cfa} 2181 2181 The string ``©int (* foo)©'' declares a Cstyle namedparameter of type pointer to an integer (the parenthesis are superfluous), while the same string declares a \CFA style unnamed parameter of type routine returning integer with unnamed parameter of type pointer to foo. … … 2185 2185 Cstyle declarations can be used to declare parameters for \CFA style routine definitions, \eg: 2186 2186 \begin{cfa} 2187 [ int ] f( * int, int * ); 2188 [ * int, int * ] f( int ); 2187 [ int ] f( * int, int * ); §\C{// returns an integer, accepts 2 pointers to integers}§ 2188 [ * int, int * ] f( int ); §\C{// returns 2 pointers to integers, accepts an integer}§ 2189 2189 \end{cfa} 2190 2190 The reason for allowing both declaration styles in the new context is for backwards compatibility with existing preprocessor macros that generate Cstyle declarationsyntax, as in: 2191 2191 \begin{cfa} 2192 2192 #define ptoa( n, d ) int (*n)[ d ] 2193 int f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ... 2194 [ int ] f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ... 2193 int f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ... §\C{// expands to int f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )}§ 2194 [ int ] f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ... §\C{// expands to [ int ] f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )}§ 2195 2195 \end{cfa} 2196 2196 Again, programmers are highly encouraged to use one declaration form or the other, rather than mixing the forms. … … 2214 2214 int z; 2215 2215 ... x = 0; ... y = z; ... 2216 ®return;® 2216 ®return;® §\C{// implicitly return x, y}§ 2217 2217 } 2218 2218 \end{cfa} … … 2224 2224 [ int x, int y ] f() { 2225 2225 ... 2226 } 2226 } §\C{// implicitly return x, y}§ 2227 2227 \end{cfa} 2228 2228 In this case, the current values of ©x© and ©y© are returned to the calling routine just as if a ©return© had been encountered. … … 2233 2233 [ int x, int y ] f( int, x, int y ) { 2234 2234 ... 2235 } 2235 } §\C{// implicitly return x, y}§ 2236 2236 \end{cfa} 2237 2237 This notation allows the compiler to eliminate temporary variables in nested routine calls. 2238 2238 \begin{cfa} 2239 [ int x, int y ] f( int, x, int y ); 2239 [ int x, int y ] f( int, x, int y ); §\C{// prototype declaration}§ 2240 2240 int a, b; 2241 2241 [a, b] = f( f( f( a, b ) ) ); … … 2251 2251 as well, parameter names are optional, \eg: 2252 2252 \begin{cfa} 2253 [ int x ] f (); 2254 [ * int ] g (int y); 2255 [ ] h ( int, char ); 2256 [ * int, int ] j ( int ); 2253 [ int x ] f (); §\C{// returning int with no parameters}§ 2254 [ * int ] g (int y); §\C{// returning pointer to int with int parameter}§ 2255 [ ] h ( int, char ); §\C{// returning no result with int and char parameters}§ 2256 [ * int, int ] j ( int ); §\C{// returning pointer to int and int, with int parameter}§ 2257 2257 \end{cfa} 2258 2258 This syntax allows a prototype declaration to be created by cutting and pasting source text from the routine definition header (or vice versa). … … 2275 2275 The syntax for pointers to \CFA routines specifies the pointer name on the right, \eg: 2276 2276 \begin{cfa} 2277 * [ int x ] () fp; 2278 * [ * int ] (int y) gp; 2279 * [ ] (int,char) hp; 2280 * [ * int,int ] ( int ) jp; 2277 * [ int x ] () fp; §\C{// pointer to routine returning int with no parameters}§ 2278 * [ * int ] (int y) gp; §\C{// pointer to routine returning pointer to int with int parameter}§ 2279 * [ ] (int,char) hp; §\C{// pointer to routine returning no result with int and char parameters}§ 2280 * [ * int,int ] ( int ) jp; §\C{// pointer to routine returning pointer to int and int, with int parameter}§ 2281 2281 \end{cfa} 2282 2282 While parameter names are optional, \emph{a routine name cannot be specified}; 2283 2283 for example, the following is incorrect: 2284 2284 \begin{cfa} 2285 * [ int x ] f () fp; 2285 * [ int x ] f () fp; §\C{// routine name "f" is not allowed}§ 2286 2286 \end{cfa} 2287 2287 … … 2306 2306 whereas a named (keyword) call may be: 2307 2307 \begin{cfa} 2308 p( z : 3, x : 4, y : 7 ); 2308 p( z : 3, x : 4, y : 7 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 7, 3 )}§ 2309 2309 \end{cfa} 2310 2310 Here the order of the arguments is unimportant, and the names of the parameters are used to associate argument values with the corresponding parameters. … … 2323 2323 For example, the following routine prototypes and definition are all valid. 2324 2324 \begin{cfa} 2325 void p( int, int, int ); 2325 void p( int, int, int ); §\C{// equivalent prototypes}§ 2326 2326 void p( int x, int y, int z ); 2327 2327 void p( int y, int x, int z ); 2328 2328 void p( int z, int y, int x ); 2329 void p( int q, int r, int s ) {} 2329 void p( int q, int r, int s ) {} §\C{// match with this definition}§ 2330 2330 \end{cfa} 2331 2331 Forcing matching parameter names in routine prototypes with corresponding routine definitions is possible, but goes against a strong tradition in C programming. … … 2339 2339 int f( int x, double y ); 2340 2340 2341 f( j : 3, i : 4 ); 2342 f( x : 7, y : 8.1 ); 2343 f( 4, 5 ); 2341 f( j : 3, i : 4 ); §\C{// 1st f}§ 2342 f( x : 7, y : 8.1 ); §\C{// 2nd f}§ 2343 f( 4, 5 ); §\C{// ambiguous call}§ 2344 2344 \end{cfa} 2345 2345 However, named arguments compound routine resolution in conjunction with conversions: 2346 2346 \begin{cfa} 2347 f( i : 3, 5.7 ); 2347 f( i : 3, 5.7 ); §\C{// ambiguous call ?}§ 2348 2348 \end{cfa} 2349 2349 Depending on the cost associated with named arguments, this call could be resolvable or ambiguous. … … 2359 2359 the allowable positional calls are: 2360 2360 \begin{cfa} 2361 p(); 2362 p( 4 ); 2363 p( 4, 4 ); 2364 p( 4, 4, 4 ); 2361 p(); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 2, 3 )}§ 2362 p( 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 2, 3 )}§ 2363 p( 4, 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 4, 3 )}§ 2364 p( 4, 4, 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 4, 4 )}§ 2365 2365 // empty arguments 2366 p( , 4, 4 ); 2367 p( 4, , 4 ); 2368 p( 4, 4, ); 2369 p( 4, , ); 2370 p( , 4, ); 2371 p( , , 4 ); 2372 p( , , ); 2366 p( , 4, 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 4, 4 )}§ 2367 p( 4, , 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 2, 4 )}§ 2368 p( 4, 4, ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 4, 3 )}§ 2369 p( 4, , ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 4, 2, 3 )}§ 2370 p( , 4, ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 4, 3 )}§ 2371 p( , , 4 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 2, 4 )}§ 2372 p( , , ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 2, 3 )}§ 2373 2373 \end{cfa} 2374 2374 Here the missing arguments are inserted from the default values in the parameter list. … … 2394 2394 Default values may only appear in a prototype versus definition context: 2395 2395 \begin{cfa} 2396 void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3 ); 2397 void p( int, int = 2, int = 3 ); 2398 void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3 ) {} 2396 void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3 ); §\C{// prototype: allowed}§ 2397 void p( int, int = 2, int = 3 ); §\C{// prototype: allowed}§ 2398 void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3 ) {} §\C{// definition: not allowed}§ 2399 2399 \end{cfa} 2400 2400 The reason for this restriction is to allow separate compilation. … … 2421 2421 \begin{cfa} 2422 2422 void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3... ); 2423 p( 1, 4, 5, 6, z : 3 ); 2424 p( 1, z : 3, 4, 5, 6 ); 2423 p( 1, 4, 5, 6, z : 3 ); §\C{// assume p( /* positional */, ... , /* named */ );}§ 2424 p( 1, z : 3, 4, 5, 6 ); §\C{// assume p( /* positional */, /* named */, ... );}§ 2425 2425 \end{cfa} 2426 2426 The first call is an error because arguments 4 and 5 are actually positional not ellipse arguments; … … 2452 2452 Furthermore, overloading cannot handle accessing default arguments in the middle of a positional list, via a missing argument, such as: 2453 2453 \begin{cfa} 2454 p( 1, /* default */, 5 ); 2454 p( 1, /* default */, 5 ); §\C{// rewrite $\Rightarrow$ p( 1, 2, 5 )}§ 2455 2455 \end{cfa} 2456 2456 … … 2465 2465 \begin{cfa} 2466 2466 struct { 2467 int f1; 2468 int f2 : 4; 2469 int : 3; 2470 int ; 2471 int *; 2472 int (*)( int ); 2467 int f1; §\C{// named field}§ 2468 int f2 : 4; §\C{// named field with bit field size}§ 2469 int : 3; §\C{// unnamed field for basic type with bit field size}§ 2470 int ; §\C{// disallowed, unnamed field}§ 2471 int *; §\C{// disallowed, unnamed field}§ 2472 int (*)( int ); §\C{// disallowed, unnamed field}§ 2473 2473 }; 2474 2474 \end{cfa} … … 2478 2478 \begin{cfa} 2479 2479 struct { 2480 int , , ; 2480 int , , ; §\C{// 3 unnamed fields}§ 2481 2481 } 2482 2482 \end{cfa} … … 2572 2572 const unsigned int size = 5; 2573 2573 int ia[size]; 2574 ... 2575 qsort( ia, size ); 2574 ... §\C{// assign values to array ia}§ 2575 qsort( ia, size ); §\C{// sort ascending order using builtin ?<?}§ 2576 2576 { 2577 2577 ®int ?<?( int x, int y ) { return x > y; }® §\C{// nested routine}§ 2578 qsort( ia, size ); 2578 qsort( ia, size ); §\C{// sort descending order by local redefinition}§ 2579 2579 } 2580 2580 \end{cfa} … … 2584 2584 The following program in undefined in \CFA (and Indexc{gcc}) 2585 2585 \begin{cfa} 2586 [* [int]( int )] foo() { 2586 [* [int]( int )] foo() { §\C{// int (* foo())( int )}§ 2587 2587 int ®i® = 7; 2588 2588 int bar( int p ) { 2589 ®i® += 1; 2589 ®i® += 1; §\C{// dependent on local variable}§ 2590 2590 sout  ®i®; 2591 2591 } 2592 return bar; 2592 return bar; §\C{// undefined because of local dependence}§ 2593 2593 } 2594 2594 int main() { 2595 * [int]( int ) fp = foo(); 2595 * [int]( int ) fp = foo(); §\C{// int (* fp)( int )}§ 2596 2596 sout  fp( 3 ); 2597 2597 } … … 2606 2606 In C and \CFA, lists of elements appear in several contexts, such as the parameter list of a routine call. 2607 2607 \begin{cfa} 2608 f( ®2, x, 3 + i® ); 2608 f( ®2, x, 3 + i® ); §\C{// element list}§ 2609 2609 \end{cfa} 2610 2610 A list of elements is called a \newterm{tuple}, and is different from a \Index{comma expression}. … … 2623 2623 typedef struct { int quot, rem; } div_t; §\C[7cm]{// from include stdlib.h}§ 2624 2624 div_t div( int num, int den ); 2625 div_t qr = div( 13, 5 ); 2626 printf( "%d %d\n", qr.quot, qr.rem ); 2625 div_t qr = div( 13, 5 ); §\C{// return quotient/remainder aggregate}§ 2626 printf( "%d %d\n", qr.quot, qr.rem ); §\C{// print quotient/remainder}§ 2627 2627 \end{cfa} 2628 2628 This approach requires a name for the return type and fields, where \Index{naming} is a common programminglanguage issue. … … 2634 2634 For example, consider C's \Indexc{modf} function, which returns the integral and fractional part of a floating value. 2635 2635 \begin{cfa} 2636 double modf( double x, double * i ); 2637 double intp, frac = modf( 13.5, &intp ); 2638 printf( "%g %g\n", intp, frac ); 2636 double modf( double x, double * i ); §\C{// from include math.h}§ 2637 double intp, frac = modf( 13.5, &intp ); §\C{// return integral and fractional components}§ 2638 printf( "%g %g\n", intp, frac ); §\C{// print integral/fractional components}§ 2639 2639 \end{cfa} 2640 2640 This approach requires allocating storage for the return values, which complicates the call site with a sequence of variable declarations leading to the call. … … 2663 2663 When a function call is passed as an argument to another call, the best match of actual arguments to formal parameters is evaluated given all possible expression interpretations in the current scope. 2664 2664 \begin{cfa} 2665 void g( int, int ); 2666 void g( double, double ); 2667 g( div( 13, 5 ) ); 2668 g( modf( 13.5 ) ); 2665 void g( int, int ); §\C{// 1}§ 2666 void g( double, double ); §\C{// 2}§ 2667 g( div( 13, 5 ) ); §\C{// select 1}§ 2668 g( modf( 13.5 ) ); §\C{// select 2}§ 2669 2669 \end{cfa} 2670 2670 In this case, there are two overloaded ©g© routines. … … 2675 2675 The previous examples can be rewritten passing the multiple returnedvalues directly to the ©printf© function call. 2676 2676 \begin{cfa} 2677 [ int, int ] div( int x, int y ); 2678 printf( "%d %d\n", div( 13, 5 ) ); 2679 2680 [ double, double ] modf( double x ); 2681 printf( "%g %g\n", modf( 13.5 ) ); 2677 [ int, int ] div( int x, int y ); §\C{// from include stdlib}§ 2678 printf( "%d %d\n", div( 13, 5 ) ); §\C{// print quotient/remainder}§ 2679 2680 [ double, double ] modf( double x ); §\C{// from include math}§ 2681 printf( "%g %g\n", modf( 13.5 ) ); §\C{// print integral/fractional components}§ 2682 2682 \end{cfa} 2683 2683 This approach provides the benefits of compiletime checking for appropriate return statements as in aggregation, but without the required verbosity of declaring a new named type. … … 2689 2689 \begin{cfa} 2690 2690 int quot, rem; 2691 [ quot, rem ] = div( 13, 5 ); 2692 printf( "%d %d\n", quot, rem ); 2691 [ quot, rem ] = div( 13, 5 ); §\C{// assign multiple variables}§ 2692 printf( "%d %d\n", quot, rem ); §\C{// print quotient/remainder}\CRT§ 2693 2693 \end{cfa} 2694 2694 Here, the multiple returnvalues are matched in much the same way as passing multiple returnvalues to multiple parameters in a call. … … 2716 2716 In \CFA, it is possible to overcome this restriction by declaring a \newterm{tuple variable}. 2717 2717 \begin{cfa} 2718 [int, int] ®qr® = div( 13, 5 ); 2719 printf( "%d %d\n", ®qr® ); 2718 [int, int] ®qr® = div( 13, 5 ); §\C{// initialize tuple variable}§ 2719 printf( "%d %d\n", ®qr® ); §\C{// print quotient/remainder}§ 2720 2720 \end{cfa} 2721 2721 It is now possible to match the multiple returnvalues to a single variable, in much the same way as \Index{aggregation}. … … 2723 2723 One way to access the individual components of a tuple variable is with assignment. 2724 2724 \begin{cfa} 2725 [ quot, rem ] = qr; 2725 [ quot, rem ] = qr; §\C{// assign multiple variables}§ 2726 2726 \end{cfa} 2727 2727 … … 2746 2746 [int, double] * p; 2747 2747 2748 int y = x.0; 2749 y = f().1; 2750 p>0 = 5; 2751 g( x.1, x.0 ); 2752 double z = [ x, f() ].0.1; 2748 int y = x.0; §\C{// access int component of x}§ 2749 y = f().1; §\C{// access int component of f}§ 2750 p>0 = 5; §\C{// access int component of tuple pointedto by p}§ 2751 g( x.1, x.0 ); §\C{// rearrange x to pass to g}§ 2752 double z = [ x, f() ].0.1; §\C{// access second component of first component of tuple expression}§ 2753 2753 \end{cfa} 2754 2754 Tupleindex expressions can occur on any tupletyped expression, including tuplereturning functions, squarebracketed tuple expressions, and other tupleindex expressions, provided the retrieved component is also a tuple. … … 2817 2817 double y; 2818 2818 [int, double] z; 2819 [y, x] = 3.14; 2819 [y, x] = 3.14; §\C{// mass assignment}§ 2820 2820 [x, y] = z; §\C{// multiple assignment}§ 2821 2821 z = 10; §\C{// mass assignment}§ 2822 z = [x, y]; 2822 z = [x, y]; §\C{// multiple assignment}§ 2823 2823 \end{cfa} 2824 2824 Let $L_i$ for $i$ in $[0, n)$ represent each component of the flattened left side, $R_i$ represent each component of the flattened right side of a multiple assignment, and $R$ represent the right side of a mass assignment. … … 2864 2864 double c, d; 2865 2865 [ void ] f( [ int, int ] ); 2866 f( [ c, a ] = [ b, d ] = 1.5 ); // assignments in parameter list2866 f( [ c, a ] = [ b, d ] = 1.5 ); §\C{// assignments in parameter list}§ 2867 2867 \end{cfa} 2868 2868 The tuple expression begins with a mass assignment of ©1.5© into ©[b, d]©, which assigns ©1.5© into ©b©, which is truncated to ©1©, and ©1.5© into ©d©, producing the tuple ©[1, 1.5]© as a result. … … 2877 2877 \begin{cfa} 2878 2878 struct S; 2879 void ?{}(S *); // (1)2880 void ?{}(S *, int); // (2)2881 void ?{}(S * double); // (3)2882 void ?{}(S *, S); // (4)2883 2884 [S, S] x = [3, 6.28]; // uses (2), (3), specialized constructors2885 [S, S] y; // uses (1), (1), default constructor2886 [S, S] z = x.0; // uses (4), (4), copy constructor2879 void ?{}(S *); §\C{// (1)}§ 2880 void ?{}(S *, int); §\C{// (2)}§ 2881 void ?{}(S * double); §\C{// (3)}§ 2882 void ?{}(S *, S); §\C{// (4)}§ 2883 2884 [S, S] x = [3, 6.28]; §\C{// uses (2), (3), specialized constructors}§ 2885 [S, S] y; §\C{// uses (1), (1), default constructor}§ 2886 [S, S] z = x.0; §\C{// uses (4), (4), copy constructor}§ 2887 2887 \end{cfa} 2888 2888 In this example, ©x© is initialized by the multiple constructor calls ©?{}(&x.0, 3)© and ©?{}(&x.1, 6.28)©, while ©y© is initialized by two default constructor calls ©?{}(&y.0)© and ©?{}(&y.1)©. … … 2925 2925 A memberaccess tuple may be used anywhere a tuple can be used, \eg: 2926 2926 \begin{cfa} 2927 s.[ y, z, x ] = [ 3, 3.2, 'x' ]; 2928 f( s.[ y, z ] ); 2927 s.[ y, z, x ] = [ 3, 3.2, 'x' ]; §\C{// equivalent to s.x = 'x', s.y = 3, s.z = 3.2}§ 2928 f( s.[ y, z ] ); §\C{// equivalent to f( s.y, s.z )}§ 2929 2929 \end{cfa} 2930 2930 Note, the fields appearing in a recordfield tuple may be specified in any order; … … 2936 2936 void f( double, long ); 2937 2937 2938 f( x.[ 0, 3 ] ); 2939 x.[ 0, 1 ] = x.[ 1, 0 ]; 2938 f( x.[ 0, 3 ] ); §\C{// f( x.0, x.3 )}§ 2939 x.[ 0, 1 ] = x.[ 1, 0 ]; §\C{// [ x.0, x.1 ] = [ x.1, x.0 ]}§ 2940 2940 [ long, int, long ] y = x.[ 2, 0, 2 ]; 2941 2941 \end{cfa} … … 2954 2954 \begin{cfa} 2955 2955 [ int, float, double ] f(); 2956 [ double, float ] x = f().[ 2, 1 ]; 2956 [ double, float ] x = f().[ 2, 1 ]; §\C{// f() called once}§ 2957 2957 \end{cfa} 2958 2958 … … 2967 2967 That is, a cast can be used to select the type of an expression when it is ambiguous, as in the call to an overloaded function. 2968 2968 \begin{cfa} 2969 int f(); // (1)2970 double f(); // (2)2971 2972 f(); // ambiguous  (1),(2) both equally viable2973 (int)f(); // choose (2)2969 int f(); §\C{// (1)}§ 2970 double f(); §\C{// (2)}§ 2971 2972 f(); §\C{// ambiguous  (1),(2) both equally viable}§ 2973 (int)f(); §\C{// choose (2)}§ 2974 2974 \end{cfa} 2975 2975 Since casting is a fundamental operation in \CFA, casts need to be given a meaningful interpretation in the context of tuples. … … 2979 2979 void g(); 2980 2980 2981 (void)f(); // valid, ignore results2982 (int)g(); // invalid, void cannot be converted to int2981 (void)f(); §\C{// valid, ignore results}§ 2982 (int)g(); §\C{// invalid, void cannot be converted to int}§ 2983 2983 2984 2984 struct A { int x; }; 2985 (struct A)f(); // invalid, int cannot be converted to A2985 (struct A)f(); §\C{// invalid, int cannot be converted to A}§ 2986 2986 \end{cfa} 2987 2987 In C, line 4 is a valid cast, which calls ©f© and discards its result. … … 2999 2999 [int, [int, int], int] g(); 3000 3000 3001 ([int, double])f(); // (1) valid3002 ([int, int, int])g(); // (2) valid3003 ([void, [int, int]])g(); // (3) valid3004 ([int, int, int, int])g(); // (4) invalid3005 ([int, [int, int, int]])g(); // (5) invalid3001 ([int, double])f(); §\C{// (1) valid}§ 3002 ([int, int, int])g(); §\C{// (2) valid}§ 3003 ([void, [int, int]])g(); §\C{// (3) valid}§ 3004 ([int, int, int, int])g(); §\C{// (4) invalid}§ 3005 ([int, [int, int, int]])g(); §\C{// (5) invalid}§ 3006 3006 \end{cfa} 3007 3007 … … 3063 3063 void f([int, int], int, int); 3064 3064 3065 f([0, 0], 0, 0); // no cost3066 f(0, 0, 0, 0); // cost for structuring3067 f([0, 0,], [0, 0]); // cost for flattening3068 f([0, 0, 0], 0); // cost for flattening and structuring3065 f([0, 0], 0, 0); §\C{// no cost}§ 3066 f(0, 0, 0, 0); §\C{// cost for structuring}§ 3067 f([0, 0,], [0, 0]); §\C{// cost for flattening}§ 3068 f([0, 0, 0], 0); §\C{// cost for flattening and structuring}§ 3069 3069 \end{cfa} 3070 3070 … … 3129 3129 [ unsigned int, char ] 3130 3130 [ double, double, double ] 3131 [ * int, int * ] 3131 [ * int, int * ] §\C{// mix of CFA and ANSI}§ 3132 3132 [ * [ 5 ] int, * * char, * [ [ int, int ] ] (int, int) ] 3133 3133 \end{cfa} … … 3136 3136 Examples of declarations using tuple types are: 3137 3137 \begin{cfa} 3138 [ int, int ] x; 3139 * [ char, char ] y; 3138 [ int, int ] x; §\C{// 2 element tuple, each element of type int}§ 3139 * [ char, char ] y; §\C{// pointer to a 2 element tuple}§ 3140 3140 [ [ int, int ] ] z ([ int, int ]); 3141 3141 \end{cfa} … … 3154 3154 [ int, int ] w1; 3155 3155 [ int, int, int ] w2; 3156 [ void ] f (int, int, int); /* three input parameters of type int */3157 [ void ] g ([ int, int, int ]); /* 3 element tuple as input */3156 [ void ] f (int, int, int); §\C{// three input parameters of type int}§ 3157 [ void ] g ([ int, int, int ]); §\C{3 element tuple as input}§ 3158 3158 f( [ 1, 2, 3 ] ); 3159 3159 f( w1, 3 ); … … 3235 3235 [ int, int, int, int ] w = [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]; 3236 3236 int x = 5; 3237 [ x, w ] = [ w, x ]; 3237 [ x, w ] = [ w, x ]; §\C{// all four tuple coercions}§ 3238 3238 \end{cfa} 3239 3239 Starting on the righthand tuple in the last assignment statement, w is opened, producing a tuple of four values; … … 3323 3323 both these examples produce indeterminate results: 3324 3324 \begin{cfa} 3325 f( x++, x++ ); 3326 [ v1, v2 ] = [ x++, x++ ]; 3325 f( x++, x++ ); §\C{// C routine call with side effects in arguments}§ 3326 [ v1, v2 ] = [ x++, x++ ]; §\C{// side effects in righthand side of multiple assignment}§ 3327 3327 \end{cfa} 3328 3328 … … 3346 3346 3347 3347 3348 \section{I/O Library} 3349 \label{s:IOLibrary} 3350 \index{input/output library} 3351 3352 The goal of \CFA I/O is to simplify the common cases\index{I/O!common case}, while fully supporting polymorphism and user defined types in a consistent way. 3353 The approach combines ideas from \CC and Python. 3354 The \CFA header file for the I/O library is \Indexc{fstream}. 3355 3356 The common case is printing out a sequence of variables separated by whitespace. 3348 \section{I/O Stream Library} 3349 \label{s:IOStreamLibrary} 3350 \index{input/output stream library} 3351 \index{stream library} 3352 3353 The goal of \CFA input/output (I/O) is to simplify the common cases\index{I/O!common case}, while fully supporting polymorphism and user defined types in a consistent way. 3354 \CFA I/O combines ideas from C ©printf©, \CC, and Python. 3355 I/O can be unformatted or formatted. 3356 Unformatted means \CFA selects the output or input format for values that match with the type of a variable. 3357 Formatted means additional information is specified to augment how an output or input of value is interpreted. 3358 \CFA formatting is a cross between C ©printf© and \CC ©cout© manipulators. 3359 \begin{itemize} 3360 \item 3361 ©printf© format codes are dense, making them difficult to read and remember. 3362 \CFA/\CC format manipulators are named, making them easier to read and remember. 3363 \item 3364 ©printf© separates format codes from associated variables, making it difficult to match codes with variables. 3365 \CFA/\CC colocate codes with associated variables, where \CFA has the tighter binding. 3366 \item 3367 Format manipulators in \CC have global rather than local effect, except ©setw©. 3368 Hence, it is common programming practice to toggle manipulators on and then back to the default to prevent downstream sideeffects. 3369 Without this programming style, errors occur when moving prints, as manipulator effects incorrectly flow into the new location. 3370 (To guarantee no sideeffects, manipulator values must be saved and restored across function calls.) 3371 \end{itemize} 3372 The \CFA header file for the I/O library is \Indexc{fstream.hfa}. 3373 3374 For unformatted output, the common case is printing a sequence of variables separated by whitespace. 3357 3375 \begin{cquote} 3358 3376 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}} … … 3373 3391 & 3374 3392 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3375 1 233393 1® ®2® ®3 3376 3394 \end{cfa} 3377 3395 \end{tabular} 3378 3396 \end{cquote} 3379 The \CFA form has half the characters of the \CC form, and is similar to \Index*{Python} I/O with respect to implicit separators .3380 Similar simplification occurs for \Index{tuple} I/O, which prints all tuple valuesseparated by ``\lstinline[showspaces=true]@, @''.3397 The \CFA form has half the characters of the \CC form, and is similar to \Index*{Python} I/O with respect to implicit separators and newline. 3398 Similar simplification occurs for \Index{tuple} I/O, which flattens the tuple and prints each value separated by ``\lstinline[showspaces=true]@, @''. 3381 3399 \begin{cfa} 3382 3400 [int, [ int, int ] ] t1 = [ 1, [ 2, 3 ] ], t2 = [ 4, [ 5, 6 ] ]; 3383 sout  t1  t2; 3401 sout  t1  t2; §\C{// print tuples}§ 3384 3402 \end{cfa} 3385 3403 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt] 3386 3404 1®, ®2®, ®3 4®, ®5®, ®6 3387 3405 \end{cfa} 3388 Finally, \CFA uses the logicalor operator for I/O as it is the lowestpriority overloadableoperator, other than assignment.3406 Finally, \CFA uses the logicalor operator for I/O as it is the lowestpriority \emph{overloadable} operator, other than assignment. 3389 3407 Therefore, fewer output expressions require parenthesis. 3390 3408 \begin{cquote} … … 3393 3411 & 3394 3412 \begin{cfa} 3395 sout  x * 3  y + 1  z << 2  x == y  (x  y)  (x  y)  (x > z ? 1 : 2);3413 sout  x * 3  y + 1  z << 2  x == y  ®(®x  y®)®  ®(®x  y®)®  ®(®x > z ? 1 : 2®)®; 3396 3414 \end{cfa} 3397 3415 \\ … … 3399 3417 & 3400 3418 \begin{cfa} 3401 cout << x * 3 << y + 1 << ®(®z << 2®)® << ®(®x == y®)® << (x  y) << (x  y) << (x > z ? 1 : 2)<< endl;3419 cout << x * 3 << y + 1 << ®(®z << 2®)® << ®(®x == y®)® << ®(®x  y®)® << ®(®x  y®)® << ®(®x > z ? 1 : 2®)® << endl; 3402 3420 \end{cfa} 3403 3421 \\ … … 3408 3426 \end{tabular} 3409 3427 \end{cquote} 3410 There is a weak similarity between the \CFA logicalor operator and the Shell pipeoperator for moving data, where data flows in the correct direction for input but the opposite direction for output. 3428 Input and output use a uniform operator, ©©, rather than separate operators, as in ©>>© and ©<<© for \CC. 3429 There is a weak similarity between the \CFA logicalor operator and the \Index{Shell pipeoperator} for moving data, where data flows in the correct direction for input but the opposite direction for output. 3430 3431 For unformatter input, the common case is reading a sequence of values separated by whitespace, where the type of an input constant must match with the type of the input variable. 3432 \begin{cquote} 3433 \begin{lrbox}{\LstBox} 3434 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3435 int x; double y char z; 3436 \end{cfa} 3437 \end{lrbox} 3438 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}} 3439 \multicolumn{1}{@{}l@{}}{\usebox\LstBox} \\ 3440 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{\CC}} \\ 3441 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3442 sin  x  y  z; 3443 \end{cfa} 3444 & 3445 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3446 cin >> x >> y >> z; 3447 \end{cfa} 3448 \\ 3449 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3450 ®1® ®2.5® ®A® 3451 \end{cfa} 3452 & 3453 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3454 ®1® ®2.5® ®A® 3455 \end{cfa} 3456 \end{tabular} 3457 \end{cquote} 3458 3411 3459 3412 3460 3413 3461 \subsection{Implicit Separator} 3414 3462 3415 The \Index{implicit separator}\index{I/O!separator} character (space/blank) is a separator not a terminator .3463 The \Index{implicit separator}\index{I/O!separator} character (space/blank) is a separator not a terminator for output. 3416 3464 The rules for implicitly adding the separator are: 3417 3465 \begin{enumerate} … … 3441 3489 3442 3490 \item 3443 A separator does not appear before a C string starting with the (extended) \Index*{ASCII}\index{ASCII!extended} characters: \lstinline[mathescape=off,basicstyle=\tt]@([{=$£¥¡¿«@ 3491 {\lstset{language=CFA,deletedelim=**[is][]{¢}{¢}} 3492 A seperator does not appear before a C string starting with the (extended) \Index*{ASCII}\index{ASCII!extended} characters: \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt]@,.;!?)]}%¢»@ 3493 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3494 sout  1  ", x"  2  ". x"  3  "; x"  4  "! x"  5  "? x"  6  "% x" 3495  7  "¢ x"  8  "» x"  9  ") x"  10  "] x"  11  "} x"; 3496 \end{cfa} 3497 \begin{cfa}[basicstyle=\tt,showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3498 1®,® x 2®.® x 3®;® x 4®!® x 5®?® x 6®%® x 7§\color{red}\textcent§ x 8®»® x 9®)® x 10®]® x 11®}® x 3499 \end{cfa}}% 3500 where \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt]@»@ is a closing citation mark. 3501 3502 \item 3503 A separator does not appear after a C string ending with the (extended) \Index*{ASCII}\index{ASCII!extended} characters: \lstinline[mathescape=off,basicstyle=\tt]@([{=$£¥¡¿«@ 3444 3504 %$ 3445 3505 \begin{cfa}[mathescape=off] … … 3455 3515 3456 3516 \item 3457 {\lstset{language=CFA,deletedelim=**[is][]{¢}{¢}} 3458 A seperator does not appear after a C string ending with the (extended) \Index*{ASCII}\index{ASCII!extended} characters: \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt]@,.;!?)]}%¢»@ 3459 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3460 sout  1  ", x"  2  ". x"  3  "; x"  4  "! x"  5  "? x"  6  "% x" 3461  7  "¢ x"  8  "» x"  9  ") x"  10  "] x"  11  "} x"; 3462 \end{cfa} 3463 \begin{cfa}[basicstyle=\tt,showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3464 1®,® x 2®.® x 3®;® x 4®!® x 5®?® x 6®%® x 7§\color{red}\textcent§ x 8®»® x 9®)® x 10®]® x 11®}® x 3465 \end{cfa}}% 3466 where \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt]@»@ is a closing citation mark. 3467 3468 \item 3469 A seperator does not appear before or after a C string begining/ending with the \Index*{ASCII} quote or whitespace characters: \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt,showspaces=true]@`'": \t\v\f\r\n@ 3517 A seperator does not appear before/after a C string starting/ending with the \Index*{ASCII} quote or whitespace characters: \lstinline[basicstyle=\tt,showspaces=true]@`'": \t\v\f\r\n@ 3470 3518 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3471 3519 sout  "x`"  1  "`x'"  2  "'x\""  3  "\"x:"  4  ":x "  5  " x\t"  6  "\tx"; … … 3486 3534 3487 3535 3488 \subsection{Manipulator} 3489 3490 The following \CCstyle \Index{manipulator}s and routines control implicit seperation. 3536 \subsection{Separation Manipulators} 3537 3538 The following \Index{manipulator}s control \Index{implicit output separation}. 3539 The effect of these manipulators is global for an output stream (except ©sepOn© and ©sepOff©). 3491 3540 \begin{enumerate} 3492 3541 \item 3493 Routines\Indexc{sepSet}\index{manipulator!sepSet@©sepSet©} and \Indexc{sep}\index{manipulator!sep@©sep©}/\Indexc{sepGet}\index{manipulator!sepGet@©sepGet©} set and get the separator string.3542 \Indexc{sepSet}\index{manipulator!sepSet@©sepSet©} and \Indexc{sep}\index{manipulator!sep@©sep©}/\Indexc{sepGet}\index{manipulator!sepGet@©sepGet©} set and get the separator string. 3494 3543 The separator string can be at most 16 characters including the ©'\0'© string terminator (15 printable characters). 3495 3544 \begin{cfa}[mathescape=off,belowskip=0pt] 3496 sepSet( sout, ", $" ); 3545 sepSet( sout, ", $" ); §\C{// set separator from " " to ", \$"}§ 3497 3546 sout  1  2  3  " \""  ®sep®  "\""; 3498 3547 \end{cfa} … … 3503 3552 %$ 3504 3553 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3505 sepSet( sout, " " ); 3554 sepSet( sout, " " ); §\C{// reset separator to " "}§ 3506 3555 sout  1  2  3  " \""  ®sepGet( sout )®  "\""; 3507 3556 \end{cfa} … … 3511 3560 ©sepGet© can be used to store a separator and then restore it: 3512 3561 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3513 char store[®sepSize®]; 3514 strcpy( store, sepGet( sout ) ); 3515 sepSet( sout, "_" ); 3562 char store[®sepSize®]; §\C{// sepSize is the maximum separator size}§ 3563 strcpy( store, sepGet( sout ) ); §\C{// copy current separator}§ 3564 sepSet( sout, "_" ); §\C{// change separator to underscore}§ 3516 3565 sout  1  2  3; 3517 3566 \end{cfa} … … 3520 3569 \end{cfa} 3521 3570 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3522 sepSet( sout, store ); 3571 sepSet( sout, store ); §\C{// change separator back to original}§ 3523 3572 sout  1  2  3; 3524 3573 \end{cfa} … … 3528 3577 3529 3578 \item 3530 Routine\Indexc{sepSetTuple}\index{manipulator!sepSetTuple@©sepSetTuple©} and \Indexc{sepTuple}\index{manipulator!sepTuple@©sepTuple©}/\Indexc{sepGetTuple}\index{manipulator!sepGetTuple@©sepGetTuple©} get and set the tuple separatorstring.3579 \Indexc{sepSetTuple}\index{manipulator!sepSetTuple@©sepSetTuple©} and \Indexc{sepTuple}\index{manipulator!sepTuple@©sepTuple©}/\Indexc{sepGetTuple}\index{manipulator!sepGetTuple@©sepGetTuple©} get and set the tuple separatorstring. 3531 3580 The tuple separatorstring can be at most 16 characters including the ©'\0'© string terminator (15 printable characters). 3532 3581 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3533 sepSetTuple( sout, " " ); 3582 sepSetTuple( sout, " " ); §\C{// set tuple separator from ", " to " "}§ 3534 3583 sout  t1  t2  " \""  ®sepTuple®  "\""; 3535 3584 \end{cfa} … … 3538 3587 \end{cfa} 3539 3588 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3540 sepSetTuple( sout, ", " ); 3589 sepSetTuple( sout, ", " ); §\C{// reset tuple separator to ", "}§ 3541 3590 sout  t1  t2  " \""  ®sepGetTuple( sout )®  "\""; 3542 3591 \end{cfa} … … 3547 3596 3548 3597 \item 3549 Manipulators \Indexc{sepDisable}\index{manipulator!sepDisable@©sepDisable©} and \Indexc{sepEnable}\index{manipulator!sepEnable@©sepEnable©} \emph{globally} toggle printing the separator, \ie the seperator is adjusted with respect to all subsequent printed items.3598 \Indexc{sepDisable}\index{manipulator!sepDisable@©sepDisable©} and \Indexc{sepEnable}\index{manipulator!sepEnable@©sepEnable©} toggle printing the separator. 3550 3599 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3551 sout  sepDisable  1  2  3; §\C{// globallyturn off implicit separator}§3600 sout  sepDisable  1  2  3; §\C{// turn off implicit separator}§ 3552 3601 \end{cfa} 3553 3602 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3555 3604 \end{cfa} 3556 3605 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3557 sout  sepEnable  1  2  3; §\C{// globallyturn on implicit separator}§3606 sout  sepEnable  1  2  3; §\C{// turn on implicit separator}§ 3558 3607 \end{cfa} 3559 3608 \begin{cfa}[mathescape=off,showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3562 3611 3563 3612 \item 3564 Manipulators \Indexc{sepOn}\index{manipulator!sepOn@©sepOn©} and \Indexc{sepOff}\index{manipulator!sepOff@©sepOff©} \emph{locally} toggle printing the separator, \ie the seperator is adjusted only with respect to the next printed item.3613 \Indexc{sepOn}\index{manipulator!sepOn@©sepOn©} and \Indexc{sepOff}\index{manipulator!sepOff@©sepOff©} toggle printing the separator with respect to the next printed item, and then return to the global seperator setting. 3565 3614 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3566 sout  1  sepOff  2  3; §\C{// locally turn off implicit separator}§3615 sout  1  sepOff  2  3; §\C{// turn off implicit separator for the next item}§ 3567 3616 \end{cfa} 3568 3617 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3570 3619 \end{cfa} 3571 3620 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3572 sout  sepDisable  1  sepOn  2  3; §\C{// locally turn on implicit separator}§3621 sout  sepDisable  1  sepOn  2  3; §\C{// turn on implicit separator for the next item}§ 3573 3622 \end{cfa} 3574 3623 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3577 3626 The tuple separator also responses to being turned on and off. 3578 3627 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3579 sout  t1  sepOff  t2; 3628 sout  t1  sepOff  t2; §\C{// locally turn on/off implicit separator}§ 3580 3629 \end{cfa} 3581 3630 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3585 3634 use ©sep© to accomplish this functionality. 3586 3635 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3587 sout  sepOn  1  2  3  sepOn; 3636 sout  sepOn  1  2  3  sepOn; §\C{// sepOn does nothing at start/end of line}§ 3588 3637 \end{cfa} 3589 3638 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] … … 3591 3640 \end{cfa} 3592 3641 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3593 sout  sep  1  2  3  sep ; 3642 sout  sep  1  2  3  sep ; §\C{// use sep to print separator at start/end of line}§ 3594 3643 \end{cfa} 3595 3644 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3596 3645 ® ®1 2 3® ® 3646 \end{cfa} 3647 \end{enumerate} 3648 3649 3650 \subsection{Newline Manipulators} 3651 3652 The following \Index{manipulator} controls \Index{newline separation} for input and output. 3653 3654 For input: 3655 \begin{enumerate}[parsep=0pt] 3656 \item 3657 \Indexc{nl}\index{manipulator!nl@©nl©} scans characters until the next newline character, i.e., ignore the remaining characters in the line. 3658 \item 3659 \Indexc{nlOn}\index{manipulator!nlOn@©nlOn©} reads the newline character, when reading single characters. 3660 \item 3661 \Indexc{nlOff}\index{manipulator!nlOff@©nlOff©} does \emph{not} read the newline character, when reading single characters. 3662 \end{enumerate} 3663 For example, in: 3664 \begin{cfa} 3665 sin  i  ®nl®  j; 3666 1 ®2® 3667 3 3668 \end{cfa} 3669 variable ©i© is assigned 1, the 2 is skipped, and variable ©j© is assigned 3. 3670 3671 For output: 3672 \begin{enumerate}[parsep=0pt] 3673 \item 3674 \Indexc{nl}\index{manipulator!nl@©nl©} inserts a newline. 3675 \begin{cfa} 3676 sout  nl; §\C{// only print newline}§ 3677 sout  2; §\C{// implicit newline}§ 3678 sout  3  nl  4  nl; §\C{// terminating nl merged with implicit newline}§ 3679 sout  5  nl  nl; §\C{// again terminating nl merged with implicit newline}§ 3680 sout  6; §\C{// implicit newline}§ 3681 3682 2 3683 3 3684 4 3685 5 3686 3687 6 3688 \end{cfa} 3689 Note, a terminating ©nl© is merged (overrides) with the implicit newline at the end of the ©sout© expression, otherwise it is impossible to to print a single newline 3690 \item 3691 \Indexc{nlOn}\index{manipulator!nlOn@©nlOn©} implicitly prints a newline at the end of each output expression. 3692 \item 3693 \Indexc{nlOff}\index{manipulator!nlOff@©nlOff©} does \emph{not} implicitly print a newline at the end of each output expression. 3694 \end{enumerate} 3695 3696 3697 \subsection{Output Value Manipulators} 3698 3699 The following \Index{manipulator}s control formatting of output values (printing), and only affect the format of the argument. 3700 \begin{enumerate} 3701 \item 3702 \Indexc{bin}( integer )\index{manipulator!bin@©bin©} print value in base 2 preceded by ©0b©/©0B©. 3703 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3704 sout  bin( 0 )  bin( 27HH )  bin( 27H )  bin( 27 )  bin( 27L ); 3705 0b0 0b11011 0b11011 0b11011 0b11011 3706 sout  bin( 27HH )  bin( 27H )  bin( 27 )  bin( 27L ); 3707 0b11100101 0b1111111111100101 0b11111111111111111111111111100101 0b(58 1s)100101 3708 \end{cfa} 3709 3710 \item 3711 \Indexc{oct}( integer )\index{manipulator!oct@©oct©} print value in base 8 preceded by ©0©. 3712 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3713 sout  oct( 0 )  oct( 27HH )  oct( 27H )  oct( 27 )  oct( 27L ); 3714 0 033 033 033 033 3715 sout  oct( 27HH )  oct( 27H )  oct( 27 )  oct( 27L ); 3716 0345 0177745 037777777745 01777777777777777777745 3717 \end{cfa} 3718 Note, octal 0 is \emph{not} preceded by ©0© to prevent confusion. 3719 3720 \item 3721 \Indexc{hex}( integer / floatingpoint )\index{manipulator!hex@©hex©} print value in base 16 preceded by ©0x©/©0X©. 3722 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3723 sout  hex( 0 )  hex( 27HH )  hex( 27H )  hex( 27 )  hex( 27L ); 3724 0 0x1b 0x1b 0x1b 0x1b 3725 sout  hex( 27HH )  hex( 27H )  hex( 27 )  hex( 27L ); 3726 0xe5 0xffe5 0xffffffe5 0xffffffffffffffe5 3727 3728 sout  hex( 0.0 )  hex( 27.5F )  hex( 27.5 )  hex( 27.5L ); 3729 0x0.p+0 0x1.b8p+4 0x1.b8p+4 0xd.cp+1 3730 sout  hex( 27.5F )  hex( 27.5 )  hex( 27.5L ); 3731 0x1.b8p+4 0x1.b8p+4 0xd.cp+1 3732 \end{cfa} 3733 3734 \item 3735 \Indexc{sci}( floatingpoint )\index{manipulator!sci@©sci©} print value in scientific notation with exponent. 3736 Default is 6 digits of precision. 3737 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3738 sout  sci( 0.0 )  sci( 27.5 )  sci( 27.5 ); 3739 0.000000e+00 2.750000e+01 2.750000e+01 3740 \end{cfa} 3741 3742 \item 3743 \Indexc{upcase}( bin / hex / floatingpoint )\index{manipulator!upcase@©upcase©} print letters in a value in upper case. Lower case is the default. 3744 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3745 sout  upcase( bin( 27 ) )  upcase( hex( 27 ) )  upcase( 27.5e10 )  upcase( hex( 27.5 ) ); 3746 0®B®11011 0®X®1®B® 2.75®E®09 0®X®1.®B®8®P®+4 3747 \end{cfa} 3748 3749 \item 3750 \Indexc{nobase}( integer )\index{manipulator!nobase@©nobase©} do not precede ©bin©, ©oct©, ©hex© with ©0b©/©0B©, ©0©, or ©0x©/©0X©. Printing the base is the default. 3751 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3752 sout  nobase( bin( 27 ) )  nobase( oct( 27 ) )  nobase( hex( 27 ) ); 3753 11011 33 1b 3754 \end{cfa} 3755 3756 \item 3757 \Indexc{nodp}( floatingpoint )\index{manipulator!nodp@©nodp©} do not print a decimal point if there are no fractional digits. 3758 Printing a decimal point is the default, if there are no fractional digits. 3759 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3760 sout  0.  nodp( 0. )  27.0  nodp( 27.0 )  nodp( 27.5 ); 3761 0.0 ®0® 27.0 ®27® 27.5 3762 \end{cfa} 3763 3764 \item 3765 \Indexc{sign}( integer / floatingpoint )\index{manipulator!sign@©sign©} prefix with plus or minus sign (©+© or ©©). Only printing the minus sign is the default. 3766 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3767 sout  sign( 27 )  sign( 27 )  sign( 27. )  sign( 27. )  sign( 27.5 )  sign( 27.5 ); 3768 ®+®27 27 ®+®27.0 27.0 ®+®27.5 27.5 3769 \end{cfa} 3770 3771 \item 3772 \Indexc{wd}©( unsigned char minimum, T val )©\index{manipulator!wd@©wd©}, ©wd( unsigned char minimum, unsigned char precision, T val )© 3773 For all types, ©minimum© is the minimum number of printed characters. 3774 If the value is shorter than the minimum, it is padded on the right with spaces. 3775 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3776 sout  wd( 4, 34)  wd( 3, 34 )  wd( 2, 34 ); 3777 sout  wd( 10, 4.)  wd( 9, 4. )  wd( 8, 4. ); 3778 sout  wd( 4, "ab" )  wd( 3, "ab" )  wd( 2, "ab" ); 3779 \end{cfa} 3780 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3781 ® ®34 ® ®34 34 3782 ® ®4.000000 ® ®4.000000 4.000000 3783 ® ®ab ® ®ab ab 3784 ab ab ab 3785 \end{cfa} 3786 If the value is larger, it is printed without truncation, ignoring the ©minimum©. 3787 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3788 sout  wd( 4, 34567 )  wd( 3, 34567 )  wd( 2, 34567 ); 3789 sout  wd( 4, 3456. )  wd( 3, 3456. )  wd( 2, 3456. ); 3790 sout  wd( 4, "abcde" )  wd( 3, "abcde" )  wd( 2,"abcde" ); 3791 \end{cfa} 3792 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3793 3456®7® 345®67® 34®567® 3794 3456®.® 345®6.® 34®56.® 3795 abcd®e® abc®de® ab®cde® 3796 \end{cfa} 3797 3798 For integer types, ©precision© is the minimum number of printed digits. 3799 If the value is shorter, it is padded on the left with leading zeros. 3800 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3801 sout  wd( 4,3, 34 )  wd( 8,4, 34 )  wd( 10,10, 34 ); 3802 \end{cfa} 3803 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3804 ®0®34 ®00®34 ®00000000®34 3805 \end{cfa} 3806 If the value is larger, it is printed without truncation, ignoring the ©precision©. 3807 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3808 sout  wd( 4,1, 3456 )  wd( 8,2, 3456 )  wd( 10,3, 3456 ); 3809 \end{cfa} 3810 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3811 3456 3456 3456 3812 \end{cfa} 3813 If ©precision© is 0, nothing is printed for zero. 3814 If ©precision© is greater than the minimum, it becomes the minimum. 3815 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3816 sout  wd( 4,0, 0 )  wd( 3,10, 34 ); 3817 \end{cfa} 3818 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3819 ® ® ®00000000®34 3820 \end{cfa} 3821 For floatingpoint types, ©precision© is the minimum number of digits after the decimal point. 3822 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3823 sout  wd( 6,3, 27.5 )  wd( 8,1, 27.5 )  wd( 8,0, 27.5 )  wd( 3,8, 27.5 ); 3824 \end{cfa} 3825 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3826 27.®500® 27.®5® 28. 27.®50000000® 3827 \end{cfa} 3828 For the Cstring type, ©precision© is the maximum number of printed characters, so the string is truncared if it exceeds the maximum. 3829 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3830 sout  wd( 6,8, "abcd" )  wd( 6,8, "abcdefghijk" )  wd( 6,3, "abcd" ); 3831 \end{cfa} 3832 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3833 abcd abcdefgh abc 3834 \end{cfa} 3835 3836 \item 3837 \Indexc{ws( unsigned char minimum, unsigned char significant, floatingpoint )}\index{manipulator!ws@©ws©} 3838 For floatingpoint type, ©minimum© is the same as for manipulator ©wd©, but ©significant© is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed for both the integer and fractions (versus only the fraction for ©wd©). 3839 If a value's significant digits is greater than ©significant©, the last significant digit is rounded up. 3840 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3841 sout  ws(6,6, 234.567)  ws(6,5, 234.567)  ws(6,4, 234.567)  ws(6,3, 234.567); 3842 \end{cfa} 3843 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3844 234.567 234.5®7® 234.®6® 23®5® 3845 \end{cfa} 3846 If a value's magnitude is greater than ©significant©, the value is printed in scientific notation with the specified number of significant digits. 3847 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3848 sout  ws(6,6, 234567.)  ws(6,5, 234567.)  ws(6,4, 234567.)  ws(6,3, 234567.); 3849 \end{cfa} 3850 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3851 234567. 2.3457®e+05® 2.346®e+05® 2.35®e+05® 3852 \end{cfa} 3853 If ©significant© is greater than ©minimum©, it defines the number of printed characters. 3854 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3855 sout  ws(3,6, 234567.)  ws(4,6, 234567.)  ws(5,6, 234567.)  ws(6,6, 234567.); 3856 \end{cfa} 3857 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3858 234567. 234567. 234567. 234567. 3859 \end{cfa} 3860 3861 \item 3862 \Indexc{left}( fieldwidth )\index{manipulator!left@©left©} left justify within the given field. 3863 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3864 sout  left(wd(4, 27))  left(wd(10, 27.))  left(wd(10, 27.5))  left(wd(4,3, 27))  left(wd(10,3, 27.5)); 3865 \end{cfa} 3866 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3867 27® ® 27.000000 27.500000 027 27.500® ® 3868 \end{cfa} 3869 3870 \item 3871 \Indexc{pad0}( fieldwidth )\index{manipulator!pad0@©pad0©} left pad with zeroes (0). 3872 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3873 sout  pad0( wd( 4, 27 ) )  pad0( wd( 4,3, 27 ) )  pad0( wd( 8,3, 27.5 ) ); 3874 ®00®27 ®0®27 ®00®27.500 3597 3875 \end{cfa} 3598 3876 \end{enumerate} … … 3655 3933 3656 3934 3935 \subsection{Input Value Manipulators} 3936 3937 The format of numeric input values in the same as C constants without a trailing type suffix, as the input valuetype is denoted by the input variable. 3938 For ©_Bool© type, the constants are ©true© and ©false©. 3939 For integral types, any number of digits, optionally preceded by a sign (©+© or ©©), where a 3940 \begin{itemize} 3941 \item 3942 ©1©©9© prefix introduces a decimal value (©0©©9©), 3943 \item 3944 ©0© prefix introduces an octal value (©0©©7©), and 3945 \item 3946 ©0x© or ©0X© prefix introduces a hexadecimal value (©0©©f©) with lower or upper case letters. 3947 \end{itemize} 3948 For floatingpoint types, any number of decimal digits, optionally preceded by a sign (©+© or ©©), optionally containing a decimal point, and optionally followed by an exponent, ©e© or ©E©, with signed (optional) decimal digits. 3949 Floatingpoint values can also be written in hexadecimal format preceded by ©0x© or ©0X© with hexadecimal digits and exponent denoted by ©p© or ©P©. 3950 3951 For the Cstring type, the input values are \emph{not} the same as Cstring constants, \ie double quotes bracketing arbitrary text with escape sequences. 3952 Instead, the next sequence of nonwhitespace characters are read, and the input sequence is terminated with delimiter ©'\0'©. 3953 The string variable \emph{must} be large enough to contain the input sequence. 3954 3955 The following \Index{manipulator}s control formatting of input values (reading), and only affect the format of the argument. 3956 3957 \begin{enumerate} 3958 \item 3959 \Indexc{skip( const char * pattern )}\index{manipulator!skip@©skip©} / ©skip( unsigned int length )© / ©const char * pattern© 3960 The argument defines a ©pattern© or ©length©. 3961 The ©pattern© is composed of whitespace and nonwhitespace characters, where \emph{any} whitespace character matches 0 or more input whitespace characters (hence, consecutive whitespace characters in the pattern are combined), and each nonwhitespace character matches exactly with an input character. 3962 The ©length© is composed of the next $N$ characters, including the newline character. 3963 If the match successes, the input characters are discarded, and input continues with the next character. 3964 If the match fails, the input characters are left unread. 3965 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3966 char sk[$\,$] = "abc"; 3967 sin  "abc "  skip( sk )  skip( 5 ); // match input sequence 3968 \end{cfa} 3969 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3970 ®abc ® 3971 ®abc ® 3972 ®xx® 3973 \end{cfa} 3974 3975 \item 3976 \Indexc{wdi}©( unsigned int maximum, T & val )©\index{manipulator!wdi@©wdi©} 3977 For all types except ©char©, ©maximum© is the maximum number of characters read for the current operation. 3978 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3979 char s[10]; int i; double d; 3980 sin  wdi( 4, s )  wdi( 3, i )  wdi( 8, d ); // c == "abcd", i == 123, d == 3.456E+2 3981 \end{cfa} 3982 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3983 ®abcd1233.456E+2® 3984 \end{cfa} 3985 Note, input ©wdi© cannot be overloaded with output ©wd© because both have the same parameters but return different types. 3986 Currently, \CFA cannot distinguish between these two manipulators in the middle of an ©sout©/©sin© expression based on return type. 3987 3988 \item 3989 \Indexc{ignore( T & val )}\index{manipulator!ignore@©ignore©} 3990 For all types, the data is read from the stream depending on the argument type but ignored, \ie it is not stored in the argument. 3991 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 3992 double d; 3993 sin  ignore( d ); // d is unchanged 3994 \end{cfa} 3995 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 3996 ® 75.35e4® 25 3997 \end{cfa} 3998 3999 \item 4000 \Indexc{incl( const char * scanset, char * s )}\index{manipulator!incl@©incl©} 4001 For the Cstring type, the argument defines a ©scanset© that matches any number of characters \emph{in} the set. 4002 Matching characters are read into the C string and null terminated. 4003 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 4004 char s[10]; 4005 sin  incl( "abc", s ); 4006 \end{cfa} 4007 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 4008 ®bca®xyz 4009 \end{cfa} 4010 4011 \item 4012 \Indexc{excl( const char * scanset, char * s )}\index{manipulator!excl@©excl©} 4013 For the Cstring type, the argument defines a ©scanset© that matches any number of characters \emph{not in} the set. 4014 Nonmatching characters are read into the C string and null terminated. 4015 \begin{cfa}[belowskip=0pt] 4016 char s[10]; 4017 sin  excl( "abc", s ); 4018 \end{cfa} 4019 \begin{cfa}[showspaces=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 4020 ®xyz®bca 4021 \end{cfa} 4022 \end{enumerate} 4023 4024 3657 4025 \section{Types} 3658 4026 … … 4022 4390 \begin{itemize} 4023 4391 \item 4024 preventing having to determine or writelong generic types,4025 \item 4026 ensur esecondary variables, related to a primary variable, always have the same type.4392 not determining or writing long generic types, 4393 \item 4394 ensuring secondary variables, related to a primary variable, always have the same type. 4027 4395 \end{itemize} 4028 4396 … … 4046 4414 There is also the conundrum in type inferencing of when to \emph{\Index{brand}} a type. 4047 4415 That is, when is the type of the variable more important than the type of its initialization expression. 4048 For example, if a change is made in an initialization expression, it can cause significantcascading type changes and/or errors.4416 For example, if a change is made in an initialization expression, it can cause cascading type changes and/or errors. 4049 4417 At some point, a variable type needs to remain constant and the expression to be in error when it changes. 4050 4418 … … 4279 4647 4280 4648 coroutine Fibonacci { 4281 int fn; 4649 int fn; §\C{// used for communication}§ 4282 4650 }; 4283 4651 void ?{}( Fibonacci * this ) { … … 4285 4653 } 4286 4654 void main( Fibonacci * this ) { 4287 int fn1, fn2; 4288 this>fn = 0; 4655 int fn1, fn2; §\C{// retained between resumes}§ 4656 this>fn = 0; §\C{// case 0}§ 4289 4657 fn1 = this>fn; 4290 suspend(); 4291 4292 this>fn = 1; 4658 suspend(); §\C{// return to last resume}§ 4659 4660 this>fn = 1; §\C{// case 1}§ 4293 4661 fn2 = fn1; 4294 4662 fn1 = this>fn; 4295 suspend(); 4296 4297 for ( ;; ) { 4663 suspend(); §\C{// return to last resume}§ 4664 4665 for ( ;; ) { §\C{// general case}§ 4298 4666 this>fn = fn1 + fn2; 4299 4667 fn2 = fn1; 4300 4668 fn1 = this>fn; 4301 suspend(); 4669 suspend(); §\C{// return to last resume}§ 4302 4670 } // for 4303 4671 } 4304 4672 int next( Fibonacci * this ) { 4305 resume( this ); 4673 resume( this ); §\C{// transfer to last suspend}§ 4306 4674 return this>fn; 4307 4675 } … … 5848 6216 In \CFA, there are ambiguous cases with dereference and operator identifiers, \eg ©int *?*?()©, where the string ©*?*?© can be interpreted as: 5849 6217 \begin{cfa} 5850 *?§\color{red}\textvisiblespace§*? 5851 *§\color{red}\textvisiblespace§?*? 6218 *?§\color{red}\textvisiblespace§*? §\C{// dereference operator, dereference operator}§ 6219 *§\color{red}\textvisiblespace§?*? §\C{// dereference, multiplication operator}§ 5852 6220 \end{cfa} 5853 6221 By default, the first interpretation is selected, which does not yield a meaningful parse. … … 5901 6269 \eg: 5902 6270 \begin{cfa} 5903 x; 5904 *y; 5905 f( p1, p2 ); 5906 g( p1, p2 ) int p1, p2; 6271 x; §\C{// int x}§ 6272 *y; §\C{// int *y}§ 6273 f( p1, p2 ); §\C{// int f( int p1, int p2 );}§ 6274 g( p1, p2 ) int p1, p2; §\C{// int g( int p1, int p2 );}§ 5907 6275 \end{cfa} 5908 6276 \CFA continues to support K\&R routine definitions: 5909 6277 \begin{cfa} 5910 f( a, b, c ) 5911 int a, b; char c 6278 f( a, b, c ) §\C{// default int return}§ 6279 int a, b; char c §\C{// K\&R parameter declarations}§ 5912 6280 { 5913 6281 ... … … 5928 6296 int rtn( int i ); 5929 6297 int rtn( char c ); 5930 rtn( 'x' ); 6298 rtn( 'x' ); §\C{// programmer expects 2nd rtn to be called}§ 5931 6299 \end{cfa} 5932 6300 \item[Rationale:] it is more intuitive for the call to ©rtn© to match the second version of definition of ©rtn© rather than the first. … … 5950 6318 \item[Change:] make string literals ©const©: 5951 6319 \begin{cfa} 5952 char * p = "abc"; 5953 char * q = expr ? "abc" : "de"; 6320 char * p = "abc"; §\C{// valid in C, deprecated in \CFA}§ 6321 char * q = expr ? "abc" : "de"; §\C{// valid in C, invalid in \CFA}§ 5954 6322 \end{cfa} 5955 6323 The type of a string literal is changed from ©[] char© to ©const [] char©. … … 5958 6326 \begin{cfa} 5959 6327 char * p = "abc"; 5960 p[0] = 'w'; 6328 p[0] = 'w'; §\C{// segment fault or change constant literal}§ 5961 6329 \end{cfa} 5962 6330 The same problem occurs when passing a string literal to a routine that changes its argument. … … 5970 6338 \item[Change:] remove \newterm{tentative definitions}, which only occurs at file scope: 5971 6339 \begin{cfa} 5972 int i; 5973 int *j = ®&i®; 5974 int i = 0; 6340 int i; §\C{// forward definition}§ 6341 int *j = ®&i®; §\C{// forward reference, valid in C, invalid in \CFA}§ 6342 int i = 0; §\C{// definition}§ 5975 6343 \end{cfa} 5976 6344 is valid in C, and invalid in \CFA because duplicate overloaded object definitions at the same scope level are disallowed. … … 5978 6346 \begin{cfa} 5979 6347 struct X { int i; struct X *next; }; 5980 static struct X a; 6348 static struct X a; §\C{// forward definition}§ 5981 6349 static struct X b = { 0, ®&a® };§\C{// forward reference, valid in C, invalid in \CFA}§ 5982 static struct X a = { 1, &b }; 6350 static struct X a = { 1, &b }; §\C{// definition}§ 5983 6351 \end{cfa} 5984 6352 \item[Rationale:] avoids having different initialization rules for builtin types and userdefined types. … … 5995 6363 struct Person { 5996 6364 enum ®Colour® { R, G, B }; §\C[7cm]{// nested type}§ 5997 struct Face { 5998 ®Colour® Eyes, Hair; 6365 struct Face { §\C{// nested type}§ 6366 ®Colour® Eyes, Hair; §\C{// type defined outside (1 level)}§ 5999 6367 }; 6000 ®.Colour® shirt; 6001 ®Colour® pants; 6002 Face looks[10]; 6368 ®.Colour® shirt; §\C{// type defined outside (top level)}§ 6369 ®Colour® pants; §\C{// type defined same level}§ 6370 Face looks[10]; §\C{// type defined same level}§ 6003 6371 }; 6004 ®Colour® c = R; 6372 ®Colour® c = R; §\C{// type/enum defined same level}§ 6005 6373 Person®.Colour® pc = Person®.®R;§\C{// type/enum defined inside}§ 6006 Person®.®Face pretty; 6374 Person®.®Face pretty; §\C{// type defined inside}\CRT§ 6007 6375 \end{cfa} 6008 6376 In C, the name of the nested types belongs to the same scope as the name of the outermost enclosing structure, \ie the nested types are hoisted to the scope of the outermost type, which is not useful and confusing. … … 6021 6389 \item[Difficulty of converting:] Semantic transformation. To make the struct type name visible in the scope of the enclosing struct, the struct tag could be declared in the scope of the enclosing struct, before the enclosing struct is defined. Example: 6022 6390 \begin{cfa} 6023 struct Y; 6391 struct Y; §\C{// struct Y and struct X are at the same scope}§ 6024 6392 struct X { 6025 6393 struct Y { /* ... */ } y; … … 6036 6404 \begin{cfa} 6037 6405 void foo() { 6038 int * b = malloc( sizeof(int) ); 6039 char * c = b; 6406 int * b = malloc( sizeof(int) ); §\C{// implicitly convert void * to int *}§ 6407 char * c = b; §\C{// implicitly convert int * to void *, and then void * to char *}§ 6040 6408 } 6041 6409 \end{cfa} … … 6298 6666 \leavevmode 6299 6667 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 6300 forall( otype T  { int ?<?( T, T ); } ) 6668 forall( otype T  { int ?<?( T, T ); } ) §\C{// location}§ 6301 6669 T * bsearch( T key, const T * arr, size_t dim );§\indexc{bsearch}§ 6302 6670 6303 forall( otype T  { int ?<?( T, T ); } ) 6671 forall( otype T  { int ?<?( T, T ); } ) §\C{// position}§ 6304 6672 unsigned int bsearch( T key, const T * arr, size_t dim ); 6305 6673 … … 6308 6676 6309 6677 forall( otype E  { int ?<?( E, E ); } ) { 6310 E * bsearch( E key, const E * vals, size_t dim );§\indexc{bsearch}§ 6678 E * bsearch( E key, const E * vals, size_t dim );§\indexc{bsearch}§ §\C{// location}§ 6311 6679 size_t bsearch( E key, const E * vals, size_t dim );§\C{// position}§ 6312 6680 E * bsearchl( E key, const E * vals, size_t dim );§\indexc{bsearchl}§ … … 6356 6724 void srandom( unsigned int seed );§\indexc{srandom}§ 6357 6725 char random( void );§\indexc{random}§ 6358 char random( char u ); 6359 char random( char l, char u ); 6726 char random( char u ); §\C{// [0,u)}§ 6727 char random( char l, char u ); §\C{// [l,u)}§ 6360 6728 int random( void ); 6361 int random( int u ); 6362 int random( int l, int u ); 6729 int random( int u ); §\C{// [0,u)}§ 6730 int random( int l, int u ); §\C{// [l,u)}§ 6363 6731 unsigned int random( void ); 6364 unsigned int random( unsigned int u ); 6732 unsigned int random( unsigned int u ); §\C{// [0,u)}§ 6365 6733 unsigned int random( unsigned int l, unsigned int u ); §\C{// [l,u)}§ 6366 6734 long int random( void ); 6367 long int random( long int u ); 6368 long int random( long int l, long int u ); 6735 long int random( long int u ); §\C{// [0,u)}§ 6736 long int random( long int l, long int u ); §\C{// [l,u)}§ 6369 6737 unsigned long int random( void ); 6370 6738 unsigned long int random( unsigned long int u ); §\C{// [0,u)}§ … … 6417 6785 [ int, long double ] remquo( long double, long double ); 6418 6786 6419 float div( float, float, int * );§\indexc{div}§ 6787 float div( float, float, int * );§\indexc{div}§ §\C{// alternative name for remquo}§ 6420 6788 double div( double, double, int * ); 6421 6789 long double div( long double, long double, int * ); … … 6573 6941 long double atan2( long double, long double ); 6574 6942 6575 float atan( float, float ); 6943 float atan( float, float ); §\C{// alternative name for atan2}§ 6576 6944 double atan( double, double );§\indexc{atan}§ 6577 6945 long double atan( long double, long double ); … … 6764 7132 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 6765 7133 struct Duration { 6766 int64_t tv; 7134 int64_t tv; §\C{// nanoseconds}§ 6767 7135 }; 6768 7136 … … 6894 7262 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 6895 7263 struct Time { 6896 uint64_t tv; 7264 uint64_t tv; §\C{// nanoseconds since UNIX epoch}§ 6897 7265 }; 6898 7266 … … 6965 7333 \begin{cfa}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt] 6966 7334 struct Clock { 6967 Duration offset; 6968 int clocktype; 7335 Duration offset; §\C{// for virtual clock: contains offset from realtime}§ 7336 int clocktype; §\C{// implementation only 1 (virtual), CLOCK\_REALTIME}§ 6969 7337 }; 6970 7338 … … 6974 7342 void ?{}( Clock & clk, Duration adj ); 6975 7343 6976 Duration getResNsec(); 6977 Duration getRes(); 6978 6979 Time getTimeNsec(); 6980 Time getTime(); 7344 Duration getResNsec(); §\C{// with nanoseconds}§ 7345 Duration getRes(); §\C{// without nanoseconds}§ 7346 7347 Time getTimeNsec(); §\C{// with nanoseconds}§ 7348 Time getTime(); §\C{// without nanoseconds}§ 6981 7349 Time getTime( Clock & clk ); 6982 7350 Time ?()( Clock & clk ); … … 6994 7362 6995 7363 \begin{cfa} 6996 void ?{}( Int * this ); 7364 void ?{}( Int * this ); §\C{// constructor/destructor}§ 6997 7365 void ?{}( Int * this, Int init ); 6998 7366 void ?{}( Int * this, zero_t ); … … 7003 7371 void ^?{}( Int * this ); 7004 7372 7005 Int ?=?( Int * lhs, Int rhs ); 7373 Int ?=?( Int * lhs, Int rhs ); §\C{// assignment}§ 7006 7374 Int ?=?( Int * lhs, long int rhs ); 7007 7375 Int ?=?( Int * lhs, unsigned long int rhs ); … … 7020 7388 unsigned long int narrow( Int val ); 7021 7389 7022 int ?==?( Int oper1, Int oper2 ); 7390 int ?==?( Int oper1, Int oper2 ); §\C{// comparison}§ 7023 7391 int ?==?( Int oper1, long int oper2 ); 7024 7392 int ?==?( long int oper2, Int oper1 ); … … 7056 7424 int ?>=?( unsigned long int oper1, Int oper2 ); 7057 7425 7058 Int +?( Int oper ); 7426 Int +?( Int oper ); §\C{// arithmetic}§ 7059 7427 Int ?( Int oper ); 7060 7428 Int ~?( Int oper ); … … 7138 7506 Int ?>>=?( Int * lhs, mp_bitcnt_t shift ); 7139 7507 7140 Int abs( Int oper ); 7508 Int abs( Int oper ); §\C{// number functions}§ 7141 7509 Int fact( unsigned long int N ); 7142 7510 Int gcd( Int oper1, Int oper2 ); … … 7249 7617 // implementation 7250 7618 struct Rational {§\indexc{Rational}§ 7251 long int numerator, denominator; 7619 long int numerator, denominator; §\C{// invariant: denominator > 0}§ 7252 7620 }; // Rational 7253 7621 7254 Rational rational(); 7622 Rational rational(); §\C{// constructors}§ 7255 7623 Rational rational( long int n ); 7256 7624 Rational rational( long int n, long int d ); … … 7258 7626 void ?{}( Rational * r, one_t ); 7259 7627 7260 long int numerator( Rational r ); 7628 long int numerator( Rational r ); §\C{// numerator/denominator getter/setter}§ 7261 7629 long int numerator( Rational r, long int n ); 7262 7630 long int denominator( Rational r ); 7263 7631 long int denominator( Rational r, long int d ); 7264 7632 7265 int ?==?( Rational l, Rational r ); 7633 int ?==?( Rational l, Rational r ); §\C{// comparison}§ 7266 7634 int ?!=?( Rational l, Rational r ); 7267 7635 int ?<?( Rational l, Rational r ); … … 7270 7638 int ?>=?( Rational l, Rational r ); 7271 7639 7272 Rational ?( Rational r ); 7640 Rational ?( Rational r ); §\C{// arithmetic}§ 7273 7641 Rational ?+?( Rational l, Rational r ); 7274 7642 Rational ??( Rational l, Rational r ); … … 7276 7644 Rational ?/?( Rational l, Rational r ); 7277 7645 7278 double widen( Rational r ); 7646 double widen( Rational r ); §\C{// conversion}§ 7279 7647 Rational narrow( double f, long int md ); 7280 7648
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