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Perform positive-sequence load flow or unbalanced load flow and initialize models containing load flow blocks

MATLAB

^{®}command prompt: Enter`powerLoadFlow`

powergui Block Parameters dialog box: On the

**Tools**tab, click**Load Flow Analyzer**.To perform a load flow analysis and initialize your model so that it starts in steady state:

Define the model buses using Load Flow Bus blocks.

Specify the load flow parameters of all blocks that have load flow parameters. These blocks are referred to as

*load flow blocks*.Solve the load flow and interactively modify the load flow parameters until a satisfactory solution is obtained.

Save the load flow parameters and machine initial conditions in the model.

In the Command window, type `power_LFnetwork_5bus`

to open a model
containing five Load Flow Bus blocks and six load flow blocks.

The Load Flow Bus blocks are shown in orange and the load flow blocks are shown in yellow.

The Load Flow Bus blocks specify the bus base voltages (nominal phase-to-phase rms voltage). They also specify the voltage at PV buses or the voltage and angle of the swing buses. Once the load flow is solved, the Load Flow Bus block displays the bus positive-sequence voltage magnitude and phase angle as block annotations.

The bus type (PV, PQ, or swing) is determined by the load flow blocks connected to the
bus. If you have several load flow blocks with different types (specified in the
**Generator type** parameter or in the **Load type**
parameter) connected to the same bus, the Load Flow tool determines the resulting bus type
(swing, PQ, or PV).

In the `power_LFnetwork_5bus`

example, the bus types are determined as
follows:

Bus | Load Flow Blocks | Resulting Bus Type |
---|---|---|

| 120 kV Three-Phase Source | swing Specify the voltage and angle in the B120 Load Flow Bus block. |

| 13.8 kV 150 MVA Synchronous Machine 3 MW 2 Mvar RLC Load | PV Specify the voltage in the B13.8 Load Flow Bus block. |

| 10 MW, 3 Mvar Dynamic Load | PQ |

| No load flow blocks | PQ |

| Asynchronous generator 9 MW | PQ Constant Z load is included in the Ybus admittance matrix. |

Some restrictions apply when you connect several source blocks and synchronous machines at the same bus:

Two swing generators cannot be connected in parallel.

A swing generator cannot be connected in parallel with a PV ideal voltage source.

When a swing voltage source with RL impedance is connected to a PV generator, the swing bus is automatically moved to the ideal voltage source connection node, behind the RL source impedance.

Only one PV generator with finite Q limits can be connected at a generation bus. However, you may have other PQ generators and loads connected on the same bus.

For more information on how to use the Load Flow Bus block in your model, see the Load Flow Bus page.

Once you have entered the load flow parameters in the Load Flow Bus
blocks and in the various load flow blocks, open the **Load Flow Analyzer** by
clicking the **Load Flow Analyzer** button of the powergui
block. The tool displays a summary of the load flow data of the model. The table below shows
the data found in the `power_LFnetwork_5bus`

model.

Note that the table contains seven lines, but there are only six load flow blocks in the model. This is because the bus B25_2 is not connected to any load flow block. Line 5 is added in the table for that particular bus, so that you can see all buses listed together with their bus voltages. This bus will be considered in the load flow analysis as a PQ bus with zero P and Q.

The **Block name** column identifies the block type. The
**Block type** column displays the bus type of the load flow blocks. The
next four columns give the bus identification label, the bus base voltage, the reference
voltage (in pu of base voltage), and the voltage angle of the load flow bus where the block
is connected. The following columns are the P and Q values specified in the **Load
Flow** tab of the blocks.

The last four columns display the current load flow solution. Because the load flow has not been performed, the columns display zero values.

The load flow parameters in the **Preferences** tab of the
powergui block are used to build the Ybus network admittance matrix and to
solve the load flow. The base power is used to specify units of the normalized Ybus matrix
in pu/Pbase and bus base voltages. The `power_LFnetwork_5bus`

model
contains five buses; consequently, the Ybus matrix will be a 5-by-5 complex matrix evaluated
at the frequency specified by the **Frequency (Hz)** parameter.

The load flow algorithm uses an iterative solution based on the Newton-Raphson method.
The **Max iterations** parameter defines the maximum number of iterations.
The load flow algorithm will iterate until the P and Q mismatch at each bus is lower than
the **PQ tolerance** parameter (in pu/Pbase). The power mismatch is defined
as the difference between the net power injected into the bus by generators and PQ loads and
the power transmitted on all links leaving that bus.

To avoid a badly conditioned Ybus matrix, you should select a **Base
power** parameter value in the range of nominal powers and loads connected to the
network. For a transmission network with voltages ranging from 120 kV to 765 kV, a 100 MVA
base is usually selected. For a distribution network or for a small plant consisting of
generators, motors, and loads that have a nominal power in the range of hundreds of
kilowatts, a 1 MVA power base is better adapted.

To solve the load flow, click the **Compute** button. The load flow
solution is displayed in the last five columns of the table.

To display the load flow report showing power flowing at each bus, click the
**Report** button. Save this report in a file by specifying the file
name at the prompt.

The report displays the summary of active and reactive powers, including the total PQ sharing between generators (SM- and Vsrc-type blocks), PQ loads (PQ-type RLC loads and DYN loads), shunt constant Z loads (Z-type RLC loads and magnetizing branches of transformers), and asynchronous machine loads (ASM):

The Load Flow converged in 2 iterations ! SUMMARY for subnetwork No 1 Total generation : P= 5.61 MW Q= 25.51 Mvar Total PQ load : P= 13.00 MW Q= 5.00 Mvar Total Zshunt load : P= 0.68 MW Q= -0.51 Mvar Total ASM load : P= -8.90 MW Q= 4.38 Mvar Total losses : P= 0.83 MW Q= 16.64 Mvar

The `Total losses`

line represents the difference between generation
and loads (PQ type + Z type +ASM) and represents series losses. After this summary, a
voltage and power report is presented for each bus:

1 : B120 V= 1.020 pu/120kV 0.00 deg ; Swing bus Generation : P= -114.39 MW Q= 62.76 Mvar PQ_load : P= 0.00 MW Q= 0.00 Mvar Z_shunt : P= 0.25 MW Q= 0.23 Mvar --> B13.8 : P= -116.47 MW Q= 53.89 Mvar --> B25_1 : P= 1.84 MW Q= 8.63 Mvar 2 : B13.8 V= 0.980 pu/13.8kV -23.81 deg Generation : P= 120.00 MW Q= -37.25 Mvar PQ_load : P= 3.00 MW Q= 2.00 Mvar Z_shunt : P= 0.17 MW Q= 0.17 Mvar --> B120 : P= 116.83 MW Q= -39.42 Mvar 3 : B25_1 V= 0.998 pu/25kV -30.22 deg Generation : P= 0.00 MW Q= 0.00 Mvar PQ_load : P= 10.00 MW Q= 3.00 Mvar Z_shunt : P= 0.25 MW Q= 0.21 Mvar --> B120 : P= -1.83 MW Q= -8.44 Mvar --> B25_2 : P= -8.41 MW Q= 5.23 Mvar 4 : B25_2 V= 0.967 pu/25kV -20.85 deg Generation : P= 0.00 MW Q= 0.00 Mvar PQ_load : P= -0.00 MW Q= -0.00 Mvar Z_shunt : P= 0.01 MW Q= -0.03 Mvar --> B25_1 : P= 8.87 MW Q= -3.67 Mvar --> B575 : P= -8.88 MW Q= 3.70 Mvar 5 : B575 V= 0.953 pu/0.575kV -18.51 deg Generation : P= 0.00 MW Q= 0.00 Mvar PQ_load : P= -0.00 MW Q= -0.00 Mvar Z_shunt : P= 0.01 MW Q= -1.09 Mvar --> ASM : P= -8.90 MW Q= 4.38 Mvar --> B25_2 : P= 8.89 MW Q= -3.29 Mvar

For every bus, the bus voltage and angle are listed on the first line. The next three lines give the PQ generated at the bus (all SM and voltage sources), the PQ absorbed by the PQ type loads, and the PQ absorbed by the Z-type loads.

The last lines, preceded by an arrow (`-->`

), list the PQ
transmitted to neighbor buses connected through lines, series impedances, and transformers,
as well power absorbed by ASM.

When performing a load flow analysis, you may need to iterate on P, Q, and V values until you find satisfactory voltages at all buses. This may require, for example, changing generated power, load powers, or reactive shunt compensation.

To change the load flow setup, you need to edit the parameters of the load flow blocks
and the Load Flow Bus blocks. Then click the **Update**
button to refresh the load flow data displayed by the table in the **Load Flow
Analyzer**. The previous load flow solution is then deleted from the table. Click the
**Compute** button to obtain a new load flow solution that corresponds
to the changes you made.

Once you have obtained a satisfactory load flow, update the model initial conditions
according to the load flow solution. Click the **Apply to Model** button
to initialize the machine blocks of the model, and as the initial conditions of regulators
connected to the machines.

Open the Three-Phase Parallel RLC Load block connected at the B13.8 bus.
Because the **Load type** specified in the **Load Flow**
tab is constant PQ, the nominal voltage of this block has been changed to the corresponding
bus voltage of 0.98 pu. The **Nominal phase-to-phase voltage Vn (Vrms)**
parameter is set to `(13800)*0.98`

.

Open the Three-Phase Dynamic Load block connected at the B25_1bus. The
**Initial positive-sequence voltage Vo [Mag(pu) Phase (deg.)** is set to
`[0.998241 -30.2228]`

.

Note that the voltage magnitudes and angles obtained at each bus are written as block annotations under the Load Flow Bus blocks.

Open the Scope block and start the simulation.

The Three-Phase Fault block applies a six-cycle fault at the B120 bus.

Observe the waveforms of the SM active power, SM and ASM speeds, and PQ of DYN load, and notice that simulation starts in steady state.

At the command prompt, enter `power_13NodeTestFeeder`

to open a model
containing 12 Load Flow Bus blocks and 13 load flow blocks. This model is a
benchmark network taken from the Radial Distribution Test Feeder in the Distribution System
Analysis Subcommittee Report by the Power Engineering Society in pages 908–912 written in
2001.

The original benchmark system contains 13 nodes. However, because the
`power_13NodeTestFeeder`

model does not include the regulating
transformer, it contains only 12 nodes.

The Load Flow Bus blocks are shown in orange and the Load Flow blocks are shown in yellow.

The Load Flow Bus blocks specify the bus base voltages (nominal phase-to-ground rms voltage). They specify the voltage at PV buses or the voltage and angle of the swing buses. Once the load flow is solved, the Load Flow Bus block displays the bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as block annotations.

**Note**

By default, the block annotations are set in the **Block Annotation**
tab of the Load Flow Bus block properties to display the phase A magnitude
(<VLF> parameter) and the phase A angle (<angleLF> parameter). To display
phase B magnitude and angle, specify <VLFb> and <angleLFb>, respectively. To
display phase C magnitude and angle, specify <VLFc> and <angleLFc>,
respectively.

You can also delete some block annotations. In the
`power_13NodeTestFeeder`

example, only the bus identification is
displayed (<ID> parameter).

The bus type (PV, PQ, or swing) is determined by the load flow blocks connected to the
bus. If you have several load flow blocks with different types (specified in the
**Generator type** parameter or in the **Load type**
parameter) connected to the same bus, the Load Flow tool determines the resulting bus type
(swing, PQ, or PV). The table shows how the bus types are determined for some of the model
buses of the power_13NodeTestFeeder example.

Bus | Load Flow Blocks | Resulting Bus Type |
---|---|---|

| 4160 V swing | 632_a=swing V=1.0210 pu -2.49 deg. Voltages and angles are specified in the ‘632’ Load Flow Bus block. |

| No load flow block | PQ |

| 634 Yg PQ load block | PQ |

| 646_Z load block | PQ Constant Z loads are included in the Ybus admittance matrix. |

| 675 Yg PQ load 675 Yg Z
load | PQ Constant Z loads are included in the Ybus admittance matrix. |

Some restrictions apply when you have several source blocks and synchronous machines connected to the same load flow bus:

You cannot connect two swing generators in parallel.

You cannot connect a swing generator in parallel with a PV ideal voltage source

You can connect only one PV generator with finite Q limits at a generation bus. However, you can have other PQ generators and loads connected on the same bus.

For more information on how to use the Load Flow Bus block in your model, see Load Flow Bus block.

Open the **Load Flow Analyzer** by clicking the **Load Flow
Analyzer** button in the powergui block. The tool displays a
list of the individual single-phase buses (one bus per phase) found in the
`power_13NodeTestFeeder`

model. In the **Load Flow Analyzer**,
the load flow has not yet been performed, so the **V_LF (pu) and Vangle_LF
(deg)** columns display zero values.

The load flow parameters in the **Preferences** tab of the
powergui block are used to build the Ybus network admittance matrix and
to solve the load flow. The base power is used to specify units of the normalized Ybus
matrix in pu/Pbase and bus base voltages. The `power_13NodeTestFeeder`

model contains 29 single phase buses; consequently, the Ybus matrix is a 29-by-29 complex
matrix evaluated at the frequency specified by the **Frequency (Hz)**
parameter.

The load flow algorithm uses an iterative solution based on the Newton-Raphson method.
The **Max iterations** parameter defines the maximum number of
iterations. The load flow algorithm iterates until the P and Q mismatch at each bus is
lower than the **PQ tolerance** parameter (in pu/Pbase). The power
mismatch is defined as the difference between the net power injected into the bus by
generators and PQ loads and the power transmitted on all links leaving that bus.

To avoid a badly conditioned Ybus matrix, select the **Base power**
parameter value in the range of nominal powers and loads connected to the network. For a
transmission network with voltages ranging from 120 kV to 765 kV, a 100 MVA base is
usually selected. For a distribution network with loads that have a nominal power in the
range of tens to hundreds of kVA, a 100 kVA to 1 MVA power base is better adapted.

To solve the load flow, click **Compute**. The bus voltages and
angles appear in the **V_LF (pu) and Vangle_LF (deg)** columns of the
table.

To display a load flow report that shows the power flow at each bus, click
**Report**. Save this report in a file by specifying the file name at
the prompt.

The report displays the summary of active and reactive powers, including the total PQ sharing between generators (SM- and Vsrc-type blocks), PQ loads (PQ-type RLC loads, dynamic loads, and asynchronous machine loads), and shunt constant Z loads (Z-type RLC loads and magnetizing branches of transformers):

SUMMARY for subnetwork No 1 Total generation : P= 3518.74 kW Q= 1540.14 kvar Total PQ load : P= 3101.90 kW Q= 1880.42 kvar Total Zshunt load : P= 363.47 kW Q= -479.42 kvar Total losses : P= 53.36 kW Q= 139.14 kvar

The `Total losses`

line represents the difference between generation
and loads (PQ type + Zshunt type) and represents series losses. After this summary, a
voltage and power report appears for each bus. For each phase of every bus, the bus
voltage and angle are listed on the first line. The next three lines give the PQ generated
at the bus (all SM and voltage sources), the PQ absorbed by the PQ type loads, and the PQ
absorbed by the Z-type loads. The last lines, preceded by an arrow (–>), list the PQ
power transmitted on all links leaving that bus.

The last column gives the positive-sequence bus voltage V1 (magnitude and angle, for three-phase buses only) and the sum of PQ powers for all phases (PQ generated by sources, PQ absorbed by loads, and PQ transmitted through transformers, lines, and series impedances). For example, you can verify that the total PQ load absorbed at bus 634 (P = 400 kW Q = 290 kvar) corresponds to the sum of active and reactive powers specified for phases A, B, and C in the load block.

When performing a load flow analysis, you might need to try different P, Q, and V values until you find satisfactory voltages at all buses. This can require, for example, changing generated power, load powers, or reactive shunt compensation.

To change the load flow setup, edit the parameters of the load flow blocks and of the
Load Flow Bus blocks. Then click **Update** to refresh
the load flow data displayed by the table. Click **Compute** to get a
new load flow solution that corresponds to the changes you made.

Once you have a satisfactory load flow, update the model initial conditions according
to the load flow solution. Click **Apply to Model** to initialize the
PQ-type load blocks, the source block internal voltages, the machine blocks, and the
initial conditions of associated regulators.

Open the Three-Phase Series RLC Load block connected at bus 632.
Because the **Load type** specified in the **Load Flow**
tab is constant PQ, the vector of **Nominal phase-to-neutral voltages [Va Vb Vc]
(Vrms)** of this block has been changed to the corresponding bus voltages
`[1.021 1.042 1.0174]*2401.78`

Vrms. Open the Three-Phase
Source block connected at bus 632. The **Line-to-neutral voltages [Va Vb
Vc] (Vrms)** parameter is also set to ```
[1.021 1.042
1.0174]*2401.78
```

Vrms.

Open the Load Flow Results subsystem and start the simulation.

Observe voltage magnitudes and PQ powers on the Display blocks. These values correspond to values displayed in the load flow report.

`Model`

— Name of modelno default

Name of model to perform load flow analysis on.

`Update`

— Update modelbutton

Click to get the latest changes in the model. Any previous load flow solution is cleared from the table.

`Compute`

— Solve load flowbutton

Click to solve the load flow. The solution is displayed in the **V_LF,
Vangle_LF, P_LF, and Q_LF** columns of the table. The load flow is performed
at the frequency, base power, PQ tolerance, and max iterations specified in the
**Preferences** tab of the powergui block.

`Apply`

— Apply solution to modelbutton

Click to apply the load flow solution to the model.

`Add bus blocks`

— Add Load Flow Bus blocks to modelbutton

Click to add Load Flow Bus blocks to the model. The **Load Flow
Analyzer** app determines the load flow bus required for your model and adds
Load Flow Bus blocks only in places where there is no Load Flow
Bus block already connected.

`Report`

— Save load flow reportbutton

Click to save a load flow report that shows the power flowing toward each bus. You
can save the report in either Excel^{®}or MATLAB format.