Changeset 48b9b36


Ignore:
Timestamp:
May 16, 2018, 10:50:48 PM (3 years ago)
Author:
Peter A. Buhr <pabuhr@…>
Branches:
aaron-thesis, arm-eh, cleanup-dtors, deferred_resn, demangler, jacob/cs343-translation, jenkins-sandbox, master, new-ast, new-ast-unique-expr, new-env, no_list, persistent-indexer, with_gc
Children:
4358c1e
Parents:
e9a7e90b
Message:

writing updates

Location:
doc
Files:
4 edited

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  • doc/bibliography/pl.bib

    re9a7e90b r48b9b36  
    137137
    138138@article{Nierstrasz87,
    139     keywords    = {Hybrid, active objects, object-oriented languages,
    140                   object-based languages, delegation, concurrency},
     139    keywords    = {Hybrid, active objects, object-oriented languages, object-based languages, delegation, concurrency},
    141140    contributer = {pabuhr@plg},
    142141    author      = {O. M. Nierstrasz},
     
    908907    howpublished= {\href{https://plg.uwaterloo.ca/~cforall/evaluation.zip}{https://plg.uwaterloo.ca/\-\-$\sim$cforall/\-StackEvaluation.zip}},
    909908    optnote     = {[Accessed May 2018]},
     909}
     910
     911@article{Moss18,
     912    keywords    = {concurrency, C++},
     913    contributer = {pabuhr@plg},
     914    author      = {Aaron Moss and Robert Schluntz and Peter A. Buhr},
     915    title       = {\textsf{C}$\mathbf{\forall}$ : Adding Modern Programming Language Features to C},
     916    year        = 2018,
     917    journal     = spe,
     918    note        = {Accepted, to appear},
    910919}
    911920
  • doc/papers/concurrency/Paper.tex

    re9a7e90b r48b9b36  
    7373% \def\{{\ttfamily\upshape\myCHarFont \char`\}}}%
    7474
     75\renewcommand*{\thefootnote}{\Alph{footnote}} % hack because fnsymbol does not work
     76%\renewcommand*{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
     77
    7578\makeatletter
    7679% parindent is relative, i.e., toggled on/off in environments like itemize, so store the value for
     
    8790\setlength{\gcolumnposn}{3.5in}
    8891\setlength{\columnposn}{\gcolumnposn}
     92
    8993\newcommand{\C}[2][\@empty]{\ifx#1\@empty\else\global\setlength{\columnposn}{#1}\global\columnposn=\columnposn\fi\hfill\makebox[\textwidth-\columnposn][l]{\lst@basicstyle{\LstCommentStyle{#2}}}}
    9094\newcommand{\CRT}{\global\columnposn=\gcolumnposn}
     
    172176literate={-}{\makebox[1ex][c]{\raisebox{0.4ex}{\rule{0.8ex}{0.1ex}}}}1 {^}{\raisebox{0.6ex}{$\scriptstyle\land\,$}}1
    173177        {~}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{$\scriptstyle\sim\,$}}1 % {`}{\ttfamily\upshape\hspace*{-0.1ex}`}1
    174         {<-}{$\leftarrow$}2 {=>}{$\Rightarrow$}2 {->}{\makebox[1ex][c]{\raisebox{0.4ex}{\rule{0.8ex}{0.075ex}}}\kern-0.2ex{\textgreater}}2,
     178        {<}{\textrm{\textless}}1 {>}{\textrm{\textgreater}}1
     179        {<-}{$\leftarrow$}2 {=>}{$\Rightarrow$}2 {->}{\makebox[1ex][c]{\raisebox{0.5ex}{\rule{0.8ex}{0.075ex}}}\kern-0.2ex{\textrm{\textgreater}}}2,
    175180moredelim=**[is][\color{red}]{`}{`},
    176181}% lstset
     
    214219\lstMakeShortInline@%
    215220
     221\let\OLDthebibliography\thebibliography
     222\renewcommand\thebibliography[1]{
     223  \OLDthebibliography{#1}
     224  \setlength{\parskip}{0pt}
     225  \setlength{\itemsep}{4pt plus 0.3ex}
     226}
    216227
    217228\title{\texorpdfstring{Concurrency in \protect\CFA}{Concurrency in Cforall}}
     
    230241\CFA is a modern, polymorphic, \emph{non-object-oriented} extension of the C programming language.
    231242This paper discusses the design of the concurrency and parallelism features in \CFA, and the concurrent runtime-system.
    232 These features are created from scratch as ISO C lacks concurrency, relying largely on pthreads library.
     243These features are created from scratch as ISO C lacks concurrency, relying largely on the pthreads library.
    233244Coroutines and lightweight (user) threads are introduced into the language.
    234245In addition, monitors are added as a high-level mechanism for mutual exclusion and synchronization.
     
    255266Examples of high-level approaches are task (work) based~\cite{TBB}, implicit threading~\cite{OpenMP}, monitors~\cite{Java}, channels~\cite{CSP,Go}, and message passing~\cite{Erlang,MPI}.
    256267
    257 This paper uses the following terminology.
     268The following terminology is used.
    258269A \newterm{thread} is a fundamental unit of execution that runs a sequence of code and requires a stack to maintain state.
    259270Multiple simultaneous threads give rise to \newterm{concurrency}, which requires locking to ensure safe communication and access to shared data.
    260271% Correspondingly, concurrency is defined as the concepts and challenges that occur when multiple independent (sharing memory, timing dependencies, \etc) concurrent threads are introduced.
    261 \newterm{Locking}, and by extension locks, are defined as a mechanism to prevent progress of threads to provide safety.
     272\newterm{Locking}, and by extension \newterm{locks}, are defined as a mechanism to prevent progress of threads to provide safety.
    262273\newterm{Parallelism} is running multiple threads simultaneously.
    263274Parallelism implies \emph{actual} simultaneous execution, where concurrency only requires \emph{apparent} simultaneous execution.
    264 As such, parallelism only affects performance, which is observed through differences in space and/or time.
    265 
    266 Hence, there are two problems to be solved in the design of concurrency for a programming language: concurrency and parallelism.
     275As such, parallelism only affects performance, which is observed through differences in space and/or time at runtime.
     276
     277Hence, there are two problems to be solved: concurrency and parallelism.
    267278While these two concepts are often combined, they are distinct, requiring different tools~\cite[\S~2]{Buhr05a}.
    268279Concurrency tools handle synchronization and mutual exclusion, while parallelism tools handle performance, cost and resource utilization.
    269280
    270281The proposed concurrency API is implemented in a dialect of C, called \CFA.
    271 The paper discusses how the language features are added to the \CFA translator with respect to parsing, semantic, and type checking, and the corresponding high-perforamnce runtime-library to implement the concurrency features.
     282The paper discusses how the language features are added to the \CFA translator with respect to parsing, semantic, and type checking, and the corresponding high-performance runtime-library to implement the concurrency features.
    272283
    273284
     
    275286
    276287The following is a quick introduction to the \CFA language, specifically tailored to the features needed to support concurrency.
    277 Extended versions of the following code examples are available at the \CFA website~\cite{Cforall} or Moss~\etal~\cite{XXX}.
     288Extended versions and explanation of the following code examples are available at the \CFA website~\cite{Cforall} or in Moss~\etal~\cite{Moss18}.
    278289
    279290\CFA is an extension of ISO-C, and hence, supports all C paradigms.
     
    282293Virtually all of the code generated by the \CFA translator respects C memory layouts and calling conventions.
    283294While \CFA is not an object-oriented language, lacking the concept of a receiver (\eg @this@) and nominal inheritance-relationships, C does have a notion of objects: ``region of data storage in the execution environment, the contents of which can represent values''~\cite[3.15]{C11}.
     295While some \CFA features are common in object-oriented programming-languages, they are an independent capability allowing \CFA to adopt them while retaining a procedural paradigm.
    284296
    285297
     
    296308r1 =  3;     r2 = 3;      r3 = 3;        // change x: implicit dereferences *r1, **r2, ***r3
    297309**p3 = &y; *p3 = &p4;                // change p1, p2
    298 `&`r3 = &y; `&&`r3 = &`&`r4;             // change r1, r2: cancel implicit deferences (&*)**r3, (&(&*)*)*r3, &(&*)r4
     310`&`r3 = &y; `&&`r3 = &`&`r4;             // change r1, r2: cancel implicit dereferences (&*)**r3, (&(&*)*)*r3, &(&*)r4
    299311\end{cfa}
    300312A reference is a handle to an object, like a pointer, but is automatically dereferenced the specified number of levels.
     
    305317\label{s:WithStatement}
    306318
    307 Heterogeneous data is often aggregated into a structure/union.
     319Heterogeneous data is aggregated into a structure/union.
    308320To reduce syntactic noise, \CFA provides a @with@ statement (see Pascal~\cite[\S~4.F]{Pascal}) to elide aggregate field-qualification by opening a scope containing the field identifiers.
    309321\begin{cquote}
     
    315327// multiple aggregate parameters
    316328\end{cfa}
    317 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
     329\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
    318330\begin{cfa}
    319331void f( S & s, T & t ) {
     
    357369// selection based on type
    358370\end{cfa}
    359 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
    360 \begin{cfa}
    361 const short int MIN = -32768;
    362 const int MIN = -2147483648;
    363 const long int MIN = -9223372036854775808L;
     371\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
     372\begin{cfa}
     373const short int `MIN` = -32768;
     374const int `MIN` = -2147483648;
     375const long int `MIN` = -9223372036854775808L;
    364376\end{cfa}
    365377&
    366378\begin{cfa}
    367 short int si = MIN;
    368 int i = MIN;
    369 long int li = MIN;
     379short int si = `MIN`;
     380int i = `MIN`;
     381long int li = `MIN`;
    370382\end{cfa}
    371383\end{tabular}
     
    373385// selection based on type and number of parameters
    374386\end{cfa}
    375 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{1.7\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
    376 \begin{cfa}
    377 void f( void );
    378 void f( char );
    379 void f( int, double );
     387\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{2.7\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
     388\begin{cfa}
     389void `f`( void );
     390void `f`( char );
     391void `f`( int, double );
    380392\end{cfa}
    381393&
    382394\begin{cfa}
    383 f();
    384 f( 'a' );
    385 f( 3, 5.2 );
     395`f`();
     396`f`( 'a' );
     397`f`( 3, 5.2 );
    386398\end{cfa}
    387399\end{tabular}
     
    389401// selection based on type and number of returns
    390402\end{cfa}
    391 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
    392 \begin{cfa}
    393 char f( int );
    394 double f( int );
    395 [char, double] f( int );
     403\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}|@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
     404\begin{cfa}
     405char `f`( int );
     406double `f`( int );
     407[char, double] `f`( int );
    396408\end{cfa}
    397409&
    398410\begin{cfa}
    399 char c = f( 3 );
    400 double d = f( 3 );
    401 [d, c] = f( 3 );
     411char c = `f`( 3 );
     412double d = `f`( 3 );
     413[d, c] = `f`( 3 );
    402414\end{cfa}
    403415\end{tabular}
     
    405417\end{cquote}
    406418Overloading is important for \CFA concurrency since the runtime system relies on creating different types to represent concurrency objects.
    407 Therefore, overloading is necessary to prevent the need for long prefixes and other naming conventions that prevent name clashes.
     419Therefore, overloading is necessary to prevent the need for long prefixes and other naming conventions to prevent name clashes.
    408420As seen in Section~\ref{basics}, function @main@ is heavily overloaded.
    409421
     
    414426with ( s, t ) {
    415427        j + k;                                                                  $\C{// unambiguous, s.j + t.k}$
    416         m = 5.0;                                                                $\C{// unambiguous, t.m = 5.0}$
    417         m = 1;                                                                  $\C{// unambiguous, s.m = 1}$
    418         int a = m;                                                              $\C{// unambiguous, a = s.i }$
    419         double b = m;                                                   $\C{// unambiguous, b = t.m}$
     428        m = 5.0;                                                                $\C{// unambiguous, s.m = 5.0}$
     429        m = 1;                                                                  $\C{// unambiguous, t.m = 1}$
     430        int a = m;                                                              $\C{// unambiguous, a = t.m }$
     431        double b = m;                                                   $\C{// unambiguous, b = s.m}$
    420432        int c = `s.i` + `t.i`;                                  $\C{// unambiguous, qualification}$
    421         (double)m;                                                              $\C{// unambiguous, cast}$
    422 }
    423 \end{cfa}
    424 For parallel semantics, both @s.i@ and @t.i@ are visible with the same type, so only @i@ is ambiguous without qualification.
     433        (double)m;                                                              $\C{// unambiguous, cast s.m}$
     434}
     435\end{cfa}
     436For parallel semantics, both @s.i@ and @t.i@ are visible the same type, so only @i@ is ambiguous without qualification.
    425437
    426438
     
    514526\begin{cfa}
    515527struct VLA { int len, * data; };                        $\C{// variable length array of integers}$
    516 void ?{}( VLA & vla ) with ( vla ) { len = 10;  data = alloc( len ); }  // default constructor
     528void ?{}( VLA & vla ) with ( vla ) { len = 10;  data = alloc( len ); }  $\C{// default constructor}$
    517529void ?{}( VLA & vla, int size, char fill ) with ( vla ) { len = size;  data = alloc( len, fill ); } // initialization
    518 void ?{}( VLA & vla, VLA other ) { vla.len = other.len;  vla.data = other.data; } // copy, shallow
     530void ?{}( VLA & vla, VLA other ) { vla.len = other.len;  vla.data = other.data; } $\C{// copy, shallow}$
    519531void ^?{}( VLA & vla ) with ( vla ) { free( data ); } $\C{// destructor}$
    520532{
    521533        VLA  x,            y = { 20, 0x01 },     z = y; $\C{// z points to y}$
    522         //    ?{}( x );   ?{}( y, 20, 0x01 );   ?{}( z, y );
     534        //    x{};         y{ 20, 0x01 };          z{ z, y };
    523535        ^x{};                                                                   $\C{// deallocate x}$
    524536        x{};                                                                    $\C{// reallocate x}$
     
    527539        y{ x };                                                                 $\C{// reallocate y, points to x}$
    528540        x{};                                                                    $\C{// reallocate x, not pointing to y}$
    529         // ^?{}(z);  ^?{}(y);  ^?{}(x);
     541        //  ^z{};  ^y{};  ^x{};
    530542}
    531543\end{cfa}
     
    546558\section{Concurrency Basics}\label{basics}
    547559
    548 At its core, concurrency is based on multiple call-stacks and scheduling among threads executing on these stacks.
    549 Multiple call stacks (or contexts) and a single thread of execution does \emph{not} imply concurrency.
    550 Execution with a single thread and multiple stacks where the thread is deterministically self-scheduling across the stacks is called \newterm{coroutining};
    551 execution with a single thread and multiple stacks but where the thread is scheduled by an oracle (non-deterministic from the thread's perspective) across the stacks is called concurrency~\cite[\S~3]{Buhr05a}.
    552 Therefore, a minimal concurrency system can be achieved using coroutines (see Section \ref{coroutine}), which instead of context-switching among each other, always defer to an oracle for where to context-switch next.
    553 
    554 While coroutines can execute on the caller's stack-frame, stack-full coroutines allow full generality and are sufficient as the basis for concurrency.
    555 The aforementioned oracle is a scheduler and the whole system now follows a cooperative threading-model (a.k.a., non-preemptive scheduling).
    556 The oracle/scheduler can either be a stack-less or stack-full entity and correspondingly require one or two context-switches to run a different coroutine.
    557 In any case, a subset of concurrency related challenges start to appear.
    558 For the complete set of concurrency challenges to occur, the only feature missing is preemption.
    559 
    560 A scheduler introduces order of execution uncertainty, while preemption introduces uncertainty about where context switches occur.
    561 Mutual exclusion and synchronization are ways of limiting non-determinism in a concurrent system.
    562 Now it is important to understand that uncertainty is desirable; uncertainty can be used by runtime systems to significantly increase performance and is often the basis of giving a user the illusion that tasks are running in parallel.
     560At its core, concurrency is based on multiple call-stacks and scheduling threads executing on these stacks.
     561Multiple call stacks (or contexts) and a single thread of execution, called \newterm{coroutining}~\cite{Conway63,Marlin80}, does \emph{not} imply concurrency~\cite[\S~2]{Buhr05a}.
     562In coroutining, the single thread is self-scheduling across the stacks, so execution is deterministic, \ie given fixed inputs, the execution path to the outputs is fixed and predictable.
     563A \newterm{stackless} coroutine executes on the caller's stack~\cite{Python} but this approach is restrictive, \eg preventing modularization and supporting only iterator/generator-style programming;
     564a \newterm{stackfull} coroutine executes on its own stack, allowing full generality.
     565Only stackfull coroutines are a stepping-stone to concurrency.
     566
     567The transition to concurrency, even for execution with a single thread and multiple stacks, occurs when coroutines also context switch to a scheduling oracle, introducing non-determinism from the coroutine perspective~\cite[\S~3]{Buhr05a}.
     568Therefore, a minimal concurrency system is possible using coroutines (see Section \ref{coroutine}) in conjunction with a scheduler to decide where to context switch next.
     569The resulting execution system now follows a cooperative threading-model, called \newterm{non-preemptive scheduling}.
     570
     571Because the scheduler is special, it can either be a stackless or stackfull coroutine.
     572For stackless, the scheduler performs scheduling on the stack of the current coroutine and switches directly to the next coroutine, so there is one context switch.
     573For stackfull, the current coroutine switches to the scheduler, which performs scheduling, and it then switches to the next coroutine, so there are two context switches.
     574A stackfull scheduler is often used for simplicity and security, even through there is a slightly higher runtime-cost.
     575
     576Regardless of the approach used, a subset of concurrency related challenges start to appear.
     577For the complete set of concurrency challenges to occur, the missing feature is \newterm{preemption}, where context switching occurs randomly between any two instructions, often based on a timer interrupt, called \newterm{preemptive scheduling}.
     578While a scheduler introduces uncertainty in the order of execution, preemption introduces uncertainty where context switches occur.
     579Interestingly, uncertainty is necessary for the runtime (operating) system to give the illusion of parallelism on a single processor and increase performance on multiple processors.
     580The reason is that only the runtime has complete knowledge about resources and how to best utilized them.
     581However, the introduction of unrestricted non-determinism results in the need for \newterm{mutual exclusion} and \newterm{synchronization} to restrict non-determinism for correctness;
     582otherwise, it is impossible to write meaningful programs.
    563583Optimal performance in concurrent applications is often obtained by having as much non-determinism as correctness allows.
    564584
     
    566586\subsection{\protect\CFA's Thread Building Blocks}
    567587
    568 One of the important features that are missing in C is threading\footnote{While the C11 standard defines a ``threads.h'' header, it is minimal and defined as optional.
     588An important missing feature in C is threading\footnote{While the C11 standard defines a ``threads.h'' header, it is minimal and defined as optional.
    569589As such, library support for threading is far from widespread.
    570590At the time of writing the paper, neither \protect\lstinline|gcc| nor \protect\lstinline|clang| support ``threads.h'' in their standard libraries.}.
    571 On modern architectures, a lack of threading is unacceptable~\cite{Sutter05, Sutter05b}, and therefore modern programming languages must have the proper tools to allow users to write efficient concurrent programs to take advantage of parallelism.
     591On modern architectures, a lack of threading is unacceptable~\cite{Sutter05, Sutter05b}, and therefore existing and new programming languages must have tools for writing efficient concurrent programs to take advantage of parallelism.
    572592As an extension of C, \CFA needs to express these concepts in a way that is as natural as possible to programmers familiar with imperative languages.
    573 And being a system-level language means programmers expect to choose precisely which features they need and which cost they are willing to pay.
     593Furthermore, because C is a system-level language, programmers expect to choose precisely which features they need and which cost they are willing to pay.
     594Hence, concurrent programs should be written using high-level mechanisms, and only step down to lower-level mechanisms when performance bottlenecks are encountered.
    574595
    575596
    576597\subsection{Coroutines: A Stepping Stone}\label{coroutine}
    577598
    578 While the focus of this proposal is concurrency and parallelism, it is important to address coroutines, which are a significant building block of a concurrency system.
    579 \newterm{Coroutine}s are generalized routines with points where execution is suspended and resumed at a later time.
    580 Suspend/resume is a context switche and coroutines have other context-management operations.
    581 Many design challenges of threads are partially present in designing coroutines, which makes the design effort relevant.
    582 The core \textbf{api} of coroutines has two features: independent call-stacks and @suspend@/@resume@.
    583 
    584 A coroutine handles the class of problems that need to retain state between calls (\eg plugin, device driver, finite-state machine).
    585 For example, a problem made easier with coroutines is unbounded generators, \eg generating an infinite sequence of Fibonacci numbers:
     599While the focus of this discussion is concurrency and parallelism, it is important to address coroutines, which are a significant building block of a concurrency system.
     600Coroutines are generalized routines allowing execution to be temporarily suspend and later resumed.
     601Hence, unlike a normal routine, a coroutine may not terminate when it returns to its caller, allowing it to be restarted with the values and execution location present at the point of suspension.
     602This capability is accomplish via the coroutine's stack, where suspend/resume context switch among stacks.
     603Because threading design-challenges are present in coroutines, their design effort is relevant, and this effort can be easily exposed to programmers giving them a useful new programming paradigm because a coroutine handles the class of problems that need to retain state between calls, \eg plugins, device drivers, and finite-state machines.
     604Therefore, the core \CFA coroutine-API for has two fundamental features: independent call-stacks and @suspend@/@resume@ operations.
     605
     606For example, a problem made easier with coroutines is unbounded generators, \eg generating an infinite sequence of Fibonacci numbers, where Figure~\ref{f:C-fibonacci} shows conventional approaches for writing a Fibonacci generator in C.
    586607\begin{displaymath}
    587 f(n) = \left \{
     608\mathsf{fib}(n) = \left \{
    588609\begin{array}{ll}
    589 0                               & n = 0         \\
    590 1                               & n = 1         \\
    591 f(n-1) + f(n-2) & n \ge 2       \\
     6100                                       & n = 0         \\
     6111                                       & n = 1         \\
     612\mathsf{fib}(n-1) + \mathsf{fib}(n-2)   & n \ge 2       \\
    592613\end{array}
    593614\right.
    594615\end{displaymath}
    595 Figure~\ref{f:C-fibonacci} shows conventional approaches for writing a Fibonacci generator in C.
    596 
    597616Figure~\ref{f:GlobalVariables} illustrates the following problems:
    598 unencapsulated global variables necessary to retain state between calls;
    599 only one fibonacci generator can run at a time;
    600 execution state must be explicitly retained.
     617unique unencapsulated global variables necessary to retain state between calls;
     618only one Fibonacci generator;
     619execution state must be explicitly retained via explicit state variables.
    601620Figure~\ref{f:ExternalState} addresses these issues:
    602621unencapsulated program global variables become encapsulated structure variables;
    603 multiple fibonacci generators can run at a time by declaring multiple fibonacci objects;
    604 explicit execution state is removed by precomputing the first two Fibonacci numbers and returning $f(n-2)$.
     622unique global variables are replaced by multiple Fibonacci objects;
     623explicit execution state is removed by precomputing the first two Fibonacci numbers and returning $\mathsf{fib}(n-2)$.
    605624
    606625\begin{figure}
     
    662681\begin{lstlisting}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt]
    663682`coroutine` Fib { int fn; };
    664 void ?{}( Fibonacci & fib ) with( fib ) { fn = 0; }
    665 void main( Fib & f ) with( f ) {
     683void main( Fib & fib ) with( fib ) {
    666684        int f1, f2;
    667685        fn = 0;  f1 = fn;  `suspend()`;
     
    687705\begin{lstlisting}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt]
    688706`coroutine` Fib { int ret; };
    689 void main( Fib & f ) with( f ) {
     707void main( Fib & f ) with( fib ) {
    690708        int fn, f1 = 1, f2 = 0;
    691709        for ( ;; ) {
     
    714732\end{figure}
    715733
    716 Figure~\ref{f:Coroutine3States} creates a @coroutine@ type, which provides communication for multiple interface functions, and the \newterm{coroutine main}, which runs on the coroutine stack.
    717 \begin{cfa}
    718 `coroutine C { char c; int i; _Bool s; };`      $\C{// used for communication}$
    719 void ?{}( C & c ) { s = false; }                        $\C{// constructor}$
    720 void main( C & cor ) with( cor ) {                      $\C{// actual coroutine}$
    721         while ( ! s ) // process c
    722         if ( v == ... ) s = false;
    723 }
    724 // interface functions
    725 char cont( C & cor, char ch ) { c = ch; resume( cor ); return c; }
    726 _Bool stop( C & cor, int v ) { s = true; i = v; resume( cor ); return s; }
    727 \end{cfa}
    728 
    729 encapsulates the Fibonacci state in the  shows is an example of a solution to the Fibonacci problem using \CFA coroutines, where the coroutine stack holds sufficient state for the next generation.
    730 This solution has the advantage of having very strong decoupling between how the sequence is generated and how it is used.
    731 Indeed, this version is as easy to use as the @fibonacci_state@ solution, while the implementation is very similar to the @fibonacci_func@ example.
    732 
    733 Figure~\ref{f:fmt-line} shows the @Format@ coroutine for restructuring text into groups of character blocks of fixed size.
    734 The example takes advantage of resuming coroutines in the constructor to simplify the code and highlights the idea that interesting control flow can occur in the constructor.
     734Using a coroutine, it is possible to express the Fibonacci formula directly without any of the C problems.
     735Figure~\ref{f:Coroutine3States} creates a @coroutine@ type:
     736\begin{cfa}
     737`coroutine` Fib { int fn; };
     738\end{cfa}
     739which provides communication, @fn@, for the \newterm{coroutine main}, @main@, which runs on the coroutine stack, and possibly multiple interface functions, @next@.
     740Like the structure in Figure~\ref{f:ExternalState}, the coroutine type allows multiple instances, where instances of this type are passed to the (overloaded) coroutine main.
     741The coroutine main's stack holds the state for the next generation, @f1@ and @f2@, and the code has the three suspend points, representing the three states in the Fibonacci formula, to context switch back to the caller's resume.
     742The interface function, @next@, takes a Fibonacci instance and context switches to it using @resume@;
     743on return, the Fibonacci field, @fn@, contains the next value in the sequence, which is returned.
     744The first @resume@ is special because it cocalls the coroutine at its coroutine main and allocates the stack;
     745when the coroutine main returns, its stack is deallocated.
     746Hence, @Fib@ is an object at creation, transitions to a coroutine on its first resume, and transitions back to an object when the coroutine main finishes.
     747Figure~\ref{f:Coroutine1State} shows the coroutine version of the C version in Figure~\ref{f:ExternalState}.
     748Coroutine generators are called \newterm{output coroutines} because values are returned by the coroutine.
     749
     750Figure~\ref{f:CFAFmt} shows an \newterm{input coroutine}, @Format@, for restructuring text into groups of character blocks of fixed size.
     751For example, the input of the left is reformatted into the output on the right.
     752\begin{quote}
     753\tt
     754\begin{tabular}{@{}l|l@{}}
     755\multicolumn{1}{c|}{\textbf{\textrm{input}}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{\textrm{output}}} \\
     756abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
     757&
     758\begin{tabular}[t]{@{}lllll@{}}
     759abcd    & efgh  & ijkl  & mnop  & qrst  \\
     760uvwx    & yzab  & cdef  & ghij  & klmn  \\
     761opqr    & stuv  & wxyz  &               &
     762\end{tabular}
     763\end{tabular}
     764\end{quote}
     765The example takes advantage of resuming coroutines in the constructor to prime the coroutine loops so the first character sent for formatting appears inside the nested loops.
     766The destruction provides a newline if formatted text ends with a full line.
     767Figure~\ref{f:CFmt} shows the C equivalent formatter, where the loops of the coroutine are flatten (linearized) and rechecked on each call because execution location is not retained between calls.
    735768
    736769\begin{figure}
    737 \begin{cfa}[xleftmargin=4\parindentlnth]
     770\centering
     771\newbox\myboxA
     772\begin{lrbox}{\myboxA}
     773\begin{lstlisting}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt]
    738774`coroutine` Format {
    739         char ch;                                                                $\C{// used for communication}$
    740         int g, b;                                                               $\C{// global because used in destructor}$
     775        char ch;   // used for communication
     776        int g, b;  // global because used in destructor
    741777};
    742 void ?{}( Format & fmt ) { `resume( fmt );` } $\C{// prime (start) coroutine}$
    743 void ^?{}( Format & fmt ) with( fmt ) { if ( g != 0 || b != 0 ) sout | endl; }
    744778void main( Format & fmt ) with( fmt ) {
    745         for ( ;; ) {                                                    $\C{// for as many characters}$
    746                 for ( g = 0; g < 5; g += 1 ) {          $\C{// groups of 5 blocks}$
    747                         for ( b = 0; b < 4; b += 1 ) {  $\C{// blocks of 4 characters}$
     779        for ( ;; ) {   
     780                for ( g = 0; g < 5; g += 1 ) {  // group
     781                        for ( b = 0; b < 4; b += 1 ) { // block
    748782                                `suspend();`
    749                                 sout | ch;                                      $\C{// print character}$
     783                                sout | ch;              // separator
    750784                        }
    751                         sout | "  ";                                    $\C{// print block separator}$
     785                        sout | "  ";               // separator
    752786                }
    753                 sout | endl;                                            $\C{// print group separator}$
     787                sout | endl;
    754788        }
    755789}
    756 void prt( Format & fmt, char ch ) {
    757         fmt.ch = ch;
     790void ?{}( Format & fmt ) { `resume( fmt );` }
     791void ^?{}( Format & fmt ) with( fmt ) {
     792        if ( g != 0 || b != 0 ) sout | endl;
     793}
     794void format( Format & fmt ) {
    758795        `resume( fmt );`
    759796}
    760797int main() {
    761798        Format fmt;
     799        eof: for ( ;; ) {
     800                sin | fmt.ch;
     801          if ( eof( sin ) ) break eof;
     802                format( fmt );
     803        }
     804}
     805\end{lstlisting}
     806\end{lrbox}
     807
     808\newbox\myboxB
     809\begin{lrbox}{\myboxB}
     810\begin{lstlisting}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt]
     811struct Format {
    762812        char ch;
    763         for ( ;; ) {                                                    $\C{// read until end of file}$
    764                 sin | ch;                                                       $\C{// read one character}$
    765           if ( eof( sin ) ) break;                              $\C{// eof ?}$
    766                 prt( fmt, ch );                                         $\C{// push character for formatting}$
     813        int g, b;
     814};
     815void format( struct Format * fmt ) {
     816        if ( fmt->ch != -1 ) { // not EOF
     817                printf( "%c", fmt->ch );
     818                fmt->b += 1;
     819                if ( fmt->b == 4 ) {  // block
     820                        printf( "  " );      // separator
     821                        fmt->b = 0;
     822                        fmt->g += 1;
     823                }
     824                if ( fmt->g == 5 ) {  // group
     825                        printf( "\n" );      // separator
     826                        fmt->g = 0;
     827                }
     828        } else {
     829                if ( fmt->g != 0 || fmt->b != 0 ) printf( "\n" );
    767830        }
    768831}
    769 \end{cfa}
     832int main() {
     833        struct Format fmt = { 0, 0, 0 };
     834        for ( ;; ) {
     835                scanf( "%c", &fmt.ch );
     836          if ( feof( stdin ) ) break;
     837                format( &fmt );
     838        }
     839        fmt.ch = -1;
     840        format( &fmt );
     841}
     842\end{lstlisting}
     843\end{lrbox}
     844\subfloat[\CFA Coroutine]{\label{f:CFAFmt}\usebox\myboxA}
     845\qquad
     846\subfloat[C Linearized]{\label{f:CFmt}\usebox\myboxB}
    770847\caption{Formatting text into lines of 5 blocks of 4 characters.}
    771848\label{f:fmt-line}
    772849\end{figure}
    773850
     851The previous examples are \newterm{asymmetric (semi) coroutine}s because one coroutine always calls a resuming function for another coroutine, and the resumed coroutine always suspends back to its last resumer, similar to call/return for normal functions.
     852However, there is no stack growth because @resume@/@suspend@ context switch to an existing stack frames rather than create a new one.
     853\newterm{Symmetric (full) coroutine}s have a coroutine call a resuming function for another coroutine, which eventually forms a cycle.
     854(The trivial cycle is a coroutine resuming itself.)
     855This control flow is similar to recursion for normal routines, but again there is no stack growth from the context switch.
     856
    774857\begin{figure}
    775858\centering
    776 \lstset{language=CFA,escapechar={},moredelim=**[is][\protect\color{red}]{`}{`}}
     859\lstset{language=CFA,escapechar={},moredelim=**[is][\protect\color{red}]{`}{`}}% allow $
    777860\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{2\parindentlnth}}l@{}}
    778861\begin{cfa}
     
    806889        Prod prod;
    807890        Cons cons = { prod };
    808         srandom( getpid() );
    809891        start( prod, 5, cons );
    810892}
     
    843925        `resume( cons );`
    844926}
    845 
    846927\end{cfa}
    847928\end{tabular}
     
    849930\label{f:ProdCons}
    850931\end{figure}
     932
     933Figure~\ref{f:ProdCons} shows a producer/consumer symmetric-coroutine performing bi-directional communication.
     934Since the solution involves a full-coroutining cycle, the program main creates one coroutine in isolation, passes this coroutine to its partner, and closes the cycle at the call to @start@.
     935The @start@ function communicates both the number of elements to be produced and the consumer into the producer's coroutine structure.
     936Then the @resume@ to @prod@ creates @prod@'s stack with a frame for @prod@'s coroutine main at the top, and context switches to it.
     937@prod@'s coroutine main starts, creates local variables that are retained between coroutine activations, and executes $N$ iterations, each generating two random vales, calling the consumer to deliver the values, and printing the status returned from the consumer.
     938
     939The producer call to @delivery@ transfers values into the consumer's communication variables, resumes the consumer, and returns the consumer status.
     940For the first resume, @cons@'s stack is initialized, creating local variables retained between subsequent activations of the coroutine.
     941The consumer iterates until the @done@ flag is set, prints, increments status, and calls back to the producer's @payment@ member, and on return prints the receipt from the producer and increments the money for the next payment.
     942The call from the consumer to the producer's @payment@ member introduces the cycle between producer and consumer.
     943When @payment@ is called, the consumer copies values into the producer's communication variable and a resume is executed.
     944The context switch restarts the producer at the point where it was last context switched and it continues in member @delivery@ after the resume.
     945
     946The @delivery@ member returns the status value in @prod@'s @main@ member, where the status is printed.
     947The loop then repeats calling @delivery@, where each call resumes the consumer coroutine.
     948The context switch to the consumer continues in @payment@.
     949The consumer increments and returns the receipt to the call in @cons@'s @main@ member.
     950The loop then repeats calling @payment@, where each call resumes the producer coroutine.
     951
     952After iterating $N$ times, the producer calls @stop@.
     953The @done@ flag is set to stop the consumer's execution and a resume is executed.
     954The context switch restarts @cons@ in @payment@ and it returns with the last receipt.
     955The consumer terminates its loops because @done@ is true, its @main@ terminates, so @cons@ transitions from a coroutine back to an object, and @prod@ reactivates after the resume in @stop@.
     956The @stop@ member returns and @prod@'s @main@ member terminates.
     957The program main restarts after the resume in @start@.
     958The @start@ member returns and the program main terminates.
    851959
    852960
     
    34933601\bibliography{pl,local}
    34943602
     3603
    34953604\end{document}
    34963605
  • doc/papers/general/Paper.tex

    re9a7e90b r48b9b36  
    5353%\newcommand{\TODO}[1]{\textbf{TODO}: {\itshape #1}} % TODO included
    5454\newcommand{\TODO}[1]{} % TODO elided
     55
     56%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    5557
    5658% Default underscore is too low and wide. Cannot use lstlisting "literate" as replacing underscore
     
    163165literate={-}{\makebox[1ex][c]{\raisebox{0.4ex}{\rule{0.8ex}{0.1ex}}}}1 {^}{\raisebox{0.6ex}{$\scriptstyle\land\,$}}1
    164166        {~}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{$\scriptstyle\sim\,$}}1 % {`}{\ttfamily\upshape\hspace*{-0.1ex}`}1
    165         {<-}{$\leftarrow$}2 {=>}{$\Rightarrow$}2 {->}{\makebox[1ex][c]{\raisebox{0.4ex}{\rule{0.8ex}{0.075ex}}}\kern-0.2ex{\textgreater}}2,
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    166169moredelim=**[is][\color{red}]{`}{`},
    167170}% lstset
     
    203206
    204207The goal of the \CFA project (pronounced ``C-for-all'') is to create an extension of C that provides modern safety and productivity features while still ensuring strong backwards compatibility with C and its programmers.
    205 Prior projects have attempted similar goals but failed to honour C programming-style; for instance, adding object-oriented or functional programming with garbage collection is a non-starter for many C developers.
     208Prior projects have attempted similar goals but failed to honour C programming-style;
     209for instance, adding object-oriented or functional programming with garbage collection is a non-starter for many C developers.
    206210Specifically, \CFA is designed to have an orthogonal feature-set based closely on the C programming paradigm, so that \CFA features can be added \emph{incrementally} to existing C code-bases, and C programmers can learn \CFA extensions on an as-needed basis, preserving investment in existing code and programmers.
    207211This paper presents a quick tour of \CFA features showing how their design avoids shortcomings of similar features in C and other C-like languages.
     
    219223
    220224\section{Introduction}
     225
    221226The C programming language is a foundational technology for modern computing with millions of lines of code implementing everything from commercial operating-systems to hobby projects.
    222227This installation base and the programmers producing it represent a massive software-engineering investment spanning decades and likely to continue for decades more.
     
    20002005Destruction parameters are useful for specifying storage-management actions, such as de-initialize but not deallocate.}.
    20012006\begin{cfa}
    2002 struct VLA { int len, * data; };
     2007struct VLA { int len, * data; };                        $\C{// variable length array of integers}$
    20032008void ?{}( VLA & vla ) with ( vla ) { len = 10;  data = alloc( len ); }  $\C{// default constructor}$
    20042009void ^?{}( VLA & vla ) with ( vla ) { free( data ); } $\C{// destructor}$
  • doc/user/user.tex

    re9a7e90b r48b9b36  
    1111%% Created On       : Wed Apr  6 14:53:29 2016
    1212%% Last Modified By : Peter A. Buhr
    13 %% Last Modified On : Sat Apr 14 19:04:30 2018
    14 %% Update Count     : 3318
     13%% Last Modified On : Sun May  6 10:33:53 2018
     14%% Update Count     : 3319
    1515%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    1616
     
    16421642\begin{itemize}
    16431643\item
    1644 if ©R© is an \Index{rvalue} of type ©T &$_1$...&$_r$© where $r \ge 1$ references (©&© symbols) than ©&R© has type ©T ®*®&$_{\color{red}2}$...&$_{\color{red}r}$©, \ie ©T© pointer with $r-1$ references (©&© symbols).
     1644if ©R© is an \Index{rvalue} of type ©T &$_1$...&$_r$© where $r \ge 1$ references (©&© symbols) then ©&R© has type ©T ®*®&$_{\color{red}2}$...&$_{\color{red}r}$©, \ie ©T© pointer with $r-1$ references (©&© symbols).
    16451645
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