Changeset 45576af9


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Jun 14, 2016, 12:22:45 PM (5 years ago)
Author:
Peter A. Buhr <pabuhr@…>
Branches:
aaron-thesis, arm-eh, cleanup-dtors, ctor, deferred_resn, demangler, gc_noraii, jacob/cs343-translation, jenkins-sandbox, master, memory, new-ast, new-ast-unique-expr, new-env, no_list, persistent-indexer, resolv-new, with_gc
Children:
4c82a3c
Parents:
d2a182e
Message:

update user manual and global latex macros

Location:
doc
Files:
3 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • doc/LaTeXmacros/common.tex

    rd2a182e r45576af9  
    1111%% Created On       : Sat Apr  9 10:06:17 2016
    1212%% Last Modified By : Peter A. Buhr
    13 %% Last Modified On : Fri Jun  3 09:32:19 2016
    14 %% Update Count     : 62
     13%% Last Modified On : Fri Jun 10 16:35:25 2016
     14%% Update Count     : 101
    1515%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    1616
     
    5656%   \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
    5757%}
     58
     59\usepackage{pslatex}                                                                    % reduce size of san serif font
    5860\usepackage{relsize}                                    % must be after change to small or selects old size
    5961
     
    7981    \vskip 50\p@
    8082  }}
    81 \renewcommand\section{\@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{-3.5ex \@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}{2.3ex \@plus .2ex}{\normalfont\large\bfseries}}
     83\renewcommand\section{\@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{-3.5ex \@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}{1.75ex \@plus .2ex}{\normalfont\large\bfseries}}
    8284\renewcommand\subsection{\@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}{-3.25ex \@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}{1.5ex \@plus .2ex}{\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries}}
    8385\renewcommand\subsubsection{\@startsection{subsubsection}{3}{\z@}{-2.5ex \@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}{1.0ex \@plus .2ex}{\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries}}
     
    132134
    133135\newenvironment{quote2}{%
    134         \list{}{\lstset{resetmargins=true}\leftmargin=\parindent\rightmargin\leftmargin}%
     136        \list{}{\lstset{resetmargins=true,aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt}\topsep=4pt\parsep=0pt\leftmargin=\parindent\rightmargin\leftmargin}%
    135137        \item\relax
    136138}{%
     
    199201language=CFA,
    200202columns=flexible,
    201 basicstyle=\sf,
     203basicstyle=\linespread{0.9}\sf,
    202204stringstyle=\tt,
    203205tabsize=4,
     
    210212showlines=true,
    211213aboveskip=4pt,
    212 belowskip=2pt,
     214belowskip=3pt,
    213215moredelim=**[is][\color{red}]{®}{®}, % red highlighting
    214 % moredelim=**[is][\color{blue}]{¢}{¢}, % blue highlighting
     216moredelim=**[is][\color{blue}]{ß}{ß}, % blue highlighting
     217moredelim=**[is][\color{OliveGreen}]{¢}{¢}, % green highlighting
    215218moredelim=[is][\lstset{keywords={}}]{¶}{¶}, % temporarily turn off keywords
    216 % literate={\\`}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{\ttfamily\upshape \hspace*{-2pt}`}}1, % escape \`, otherwise used for red highlighting
    217 literate={...}{{$\dots$}}1 {<-}{{$\leftarrow$}}1 {=>}{{$\Rightarrow$}}1,
     219% replace/adjust listing characters that look bad in sanserif
     220literate={-}{\raisebox{-0.15ex}{\texttt{-}}}1 {^}{\raisebox{0.6ex}{$\scriptscriptstyle\land\,$}}1
     221        {~}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{$\scriptstyle\sim\,$}}1 {_}{\makebox[1.2ex][c]{\rule{1ex}{0.1ex}}}1 {`}{\ttfamily\upshape\hspace*{-0.1ex}`}1
     222        {<-}{$\leftarrow$}2 {=>}{$\Rightarrow$}2 {...}{$\dots$}2,
    218223}%
    219224
    220225\lstMakeShortInline©    % single-character for \lstinline
    221 
    222 \makeatletter
    223 % replace/adjust listings characters that look bad in sanserif
    224 \lst@CCPutMacro
    225 \lst@ProcessOther{"22}{\lst@ttfamily{"}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{\ttfamily\upshape "}}} % replace double quote
    226 \lst@ProcessOther{"27}{\lst@ttfamily{'}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{\ttfamily\upshape '\hspace*{-2pt}}}} % replace single quote
    227 \lst@ProcessOther{"2D}{\lst@ttfamily{-}{\textbf{\texttt{-}}}} % replace minus
    228 \lst@ProcessOther{"3C}{\lst@ttfamily{<}{\textbf{\texttt{<}}}} % replace less than
    229 \lst@ProcessOther{"3E}{\lst@ttfamily{>}{\textbf{\texttt{>}}}} % replace greater than
    230 \lst@ProcessOther{"5E}{\raisebox{0.4ex}{$\scriptstyle\land\,$}} % replace circumflex
    231 \lst@ProcessOther{"5F}{\lst@ttfamily{\char95}{{\makebox[1.2ex][c]{\rule{1ex}{0.1ex}}}}} % replace underscore
    232 \lst@ProcessOther{"60}{\lst@ttfamily{`}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{\ttfamily\upshape \hspace*{-2pt}`}}} % replace backquote
    233 \lst@ProcessOther{"7E}{\raisebox{0.3ex}{$\scriptstyle\sim\,$}} % replace tilde
    234 %\lst@ProcessOther{"7E}{\raisebox{-.4ex}[1ex][0pt]{\textasciitilde}} % lower tilde
    235 \@empty\z@\@empty % NECESSARY DO NOT REMOVE
    236 \makeatother
    237226
    238227% Local Variables: %
  • doc/user/Cdecl.fig

    rd2a182e r45576af9  
    3434        1 1 1.00 45.00 90.00
    3535         1950 1275 1950 1500
    36 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 1350 1650 0\001
    37 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 1500 1650 1\001
    38 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 1650 1650 2\001
    39 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 1800 1650 3\001
    40 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 1950 1650 4\001
    41 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 75 75 1200 1325 x\001
     364 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 1350 1650 0\001
     374 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 1500 1650 1\001
     384 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 1650 1650 2\001
     394 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 1800 1650 3\001
     404 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 1950 1650 4\001
     414 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 75 75 1200 1325 x\001
    4242-6
    43436 2325 1200 3600 1350
     
    54542 2 0 1 0 7 50 -1 -1 0.000 0 0 -1 0 0 5
    5555         2850 1200 3600 1200 3600 1350 2850 1350 2850 1200
    56 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 2925 1325 0\001
    57 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 3075 1325 1\001
    58 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 3225 1325 2\001
    59 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 3375 1325 3\001
    60 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 105 90 3525 1325 4\001
     564 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 2925 1325 0\001
     574 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 3075 1325 1\001
     584 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 3225 1325 2\001
     594 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 3375 1325 3\001
     604 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 105 90 3525 1325 4\001
    6161-6
    62622 2 0 1 0 7 50 -1 -1 0.000 0 0 -1 0 0 5
     
    6666         2550 1275 2850 1275
    6767-6
    68 4 1 0 50 -1 4 9 0.0000 2 75 75 2400 1325 x\001
     684 1 0 50 -1 4 10 0.0000 2 75 75 2400 1325 x\001
    6969-6
  • doc/user/user.tex

    rd2a182e r45576af9  
    1111%% Created On       : Wed Apr  6 14:53:29 2016
    1212%% Last Modified By : Peter A. Buhr
    13 %% Last Modified On : Fri Jun  3 09:49:31 2016
    14 %% Update Count     : 281
     13%% Last Modified On : Fri Jun 10 16:38:22 2016
     14%% Update Count     : 394
    1515%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    1616
     
    1818
    1919% inline code ©...© (copyright symbol) emacs: C-q M-)
    20 % red highlighting ®...® (registered trademark sumbol) emacs: C-q M-.
    21 % latex escape §...§ (section symbol) emacs: C-q M-'
     20% red highlighting ®...® (registered trademark symbol) emacs: C-q M-.
     21% blue highlighting ß...ß (sharp s symbol) emacs: C-q M-_
     22% green highlighting ¢...¢ (cent symbol) emacs: C-q M-"
     23% Latex escape §...§ (section symbol) emacs: C-q M-'
    2224% keyword escape ¶...¶ (pilcrow symbol) emacs: C-q M-^
    2325% math escape $...$ (dollar symbol)
    2426
    25 \documentclass[openright,twoside]{article}
     27\documentclass[twoside,11pt]{article}
    2628%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    2729
     
    3234\usepackage{fullpage,times,comment}
    3335\usepackage{epic,eepic}
    34 \usepackage{upquote}                                                                    % switch curled `' to straight `'
     36\usepackage{upquote}                                                                    % switch curled `'" to straight `'"
    3537\usepackage{xspace}
    3638\usepackage{varioref}                                                                   % extended references
    3739\usepackage{listings}                                                                   % format program code
    38 \usepackage{footmisc}                                                                   % support label/reference in footnote
     40\usepackage[flushmargin]{footmisc}                                              % support label/reference in footnote
    3941\usepackage{latexsym}                                   % \Box glyph
    4042\usepackage{mathptmx}                                   % better math font with "times"
     43\usepackage[usenames]{color}
    4144\usepackage[pagewise]{lineno}
    4245\renewcommand{\linenumberfont}{\scriptsize\sffamily}
     46\input{common}                                          % bespoke macros used in the document
    4347\usepackage[dvips,plainpages=false,pdfpagelabels,pdfpagemode=UseNone,colorlinks=true,pagebackref=true,linkcolor=blue,citecolor=blue,urlcolor=blue,pagebackref=true,breaklinks=true]{hyperref}
    4448\usepackage{breakurl}
    4549\renewcommand{\UrlFont}{\small\sf}
    4650
    47 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    48 
    49 % Bespoke macros used in the document.
    50 \input{common}
    51 
    52 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    53 
    5451% Names used in the document.
    5552
    5653\newcommand{\Version}{1.0.0}
    5754\newcommand{\CS}{C\raisebox{-0.9ex}{\large$^\sharp$}\xspace}
     55
     56\newcommand{\Textbf}[2][red]{{\color{#1}{\textbf{#2}}}}
     57\newcommand{\Emph}[2][red]{{\color{#1}\textbf{\emph{#2}}}}
     58\newcommand{\R}[1]{\Textbf{#1}}
     59\newcommand{\B}[1]{{\Textbf[blue]{#1}}}
     60\newcommand{\G}[1]{{\Textbf[OliveGreen]{#1}}}
    5861
    5962%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
     
    110113
    111114\CFA\footnote{Pronounced ``C-for-all'', and written \CFA, CFA, or \CFL.} is a modern general-purpose programming-language, designed an as evolutionary step forward from the C programming language.
    112 The syntax of the \CFA language builds from C, and should look immediately familiar to C programmers.
     115The syntax of the \CFA language builds from C, and should look immediately familiar to C/\CC programmers.
    113116% Any language feature that is not described here can be assumed to be using the standard C11 syntax.
    114 \CFA adds many modern programming-language features that directly leads to increased \emph{safety} and \emph{productivity}, while maintaining interoperability with existing C programs and achieving C performance.
     117\CFA adds many modern programming-language features that directly lead to increased \emph{safety} and \emph{productivity}, while maintaining interoperability with existing C programs and achieving C performance.
    115118Like C, \CFA is a statically typed, procedural language with a low-overhead runtime, meaning there is no global garbage-collection.
    116119The primary new features include parametric-polymorphism routines and types, exceptions, concurrency, and modules.
     
    123126New programs can be written in \CFA using a combination of C and \CFA features.
    124127\CC had a similar goal 30 years ago, but has struggled over the intervening time to incorporate modern programming-language features because of early design choices.
    125 \CFA has 30 years of hindsight and clean starting point.
     128\CFA has 30 years of hindsight and a clean starting point.
    126129
    127130Like \CC, there may be both an old and new ways to achieve the same effect.
    128131For example, the following programs compare the \CFA and C I/O mechanisms.
    129132\begin{quote2}
    130 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    131 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     133\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     134\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    132135\begin{lstlisting}
    133136#include <fstream>
    134137int main( void ) {
    135138        int x = 0, y = 1, z = 2;
    136         sout | x | y | z | endl;
     139        ®sout | x | y | z | endl;®
    137140}
    138141\end{lstlisting}
     
    142145int main( void ) {
    143146        int x = 0, y = 1, z = 2;
    144         printf( "%d %d %d\n", x, y, z );
     147        ®printf( "%d %d %d\n", x, y, z );®
    145148}
    146149\end{lstlisting}
     
    148151\end{quote2}
    149152Both programs output the same result.
    150 While the \CFA I/O looks similar to the \CC output style, there are several important differences, such as automatic spacing between variables as in Python (see also~\VRef{s:IOLibrary}).
    151 
    152 This document is a reference manual for the \CFA programming language, targeted at \CFA programmers.
     153While the \CFA I/O looks similar to the \CC output style, there are important differences, such as automatic spacing between variables as in Python (see also~\VRef{s:IOLibrary}).
     154
     155This document is a user manual for the \CFA programming language, targeted at \CFA programmers.
    153156Implementers may refer to the \CFA Programming Language Specification for details about the language syntax and semantics.
    154157In its current state, this document covers the intended core features of the language.
     
    159162\section{History}
    160163
    161 The \CFA project started with K-W C~\cite{Till89,Buhr94a}, which extended C with new declaration syntax, multiple return values from routines, and extended assignment capabilities using the notion of tuples.
     164The \CFA project started with K-W C~\cite{Buhr94a,Till89}, which extended C with new declaration syntax, multiple return values from routines, and extended assignment capabilities using the notion of tuples.
    162165(See~\cite{Werther96} for some similar work, but for \CC.)
    163166The original \CFA project~\cite{Ditchfield92} extended the C type system with parametric polymorphism and overloading, as opposed to the \CC approach of object-oriented extensions to the C type-system.
    164167A first implementation of the core Cforall language was created~\cite{Bilson03,Esteves04}, but at the time there was little interesting in extending C, so work did not continue.
    165 As the saying goes, ``What goes around, comes around'', and there is now renewed interest in the C programming language because of legacy code-bases, so the \CFA project has been restarted.
     168As the saying goes, ``What goes around, comes around.'', and there is now renewed interest in the C programming language because of legacy code-bases, so the \CFA project has been restarted.
    166169
    167170
     
    169172
    170173Even with all its problems, C is a very popular programming language because it allows writing software at virtually any level in a computer system without restriction.
    171 For systems programming, where direct access to hardware and dealing with real-time issues is a requirement, C is usually the language of choice.
     174For system programming, where direct access to hardware and dealing with real-time issues is a requirement, C is usually the language of choice.
    172175As well, there are millions of lines of C legacy code, forming the base for many software development projects (especially on UNIX systems).
    173176The TIOBE index (\url{http://www.tiobe.com/tiobe_index}) for March 2016 shows programming-language popularity, with Java 20.5\%, C 14.5\%, \CC 6.7\%, \CS 4.3\%, Python 4.3\%, and all other programming languages below 3\%.
     177As well, for 30 years, C has been the number 1 and 2 most popular programming language:
     178\begin{center}
     179\setlength{\tabcolsep}{1.5ex}
     180\begin{tabular}{@{}r|c|c|c|c|c|c|c@{}}
     181Ranking & 2016  & 2011  & 2006  & 2001  & 1996  & 1991  & 1986          \\
     182\hline
     183Java    & 1             & 1             & 1             & 3             & 29    & -             & -                     \\
     184\hline
     185\R{C}   & \R{2} & \R{2} & \R{2} & \R{1} & \R{1} & \R{1} & \R{1}         \\
     186\hline
     187\CC             & 3             & 3             & 3             & 2             & 2             & 2             & 7                     \\
     188\end{tabular}
     189\end{center}
    174190Hence, C is still an extremely important programming language, with double the usage of \CC, where \CC itself is largely C code.
    175191Finally, love it or hate it, C has been an important and influential part of computer science for 40 years and it appears it will continue to be for many more years.
     
    178194The goal of this project is to engineer modern language features into C in an evolutionary rather than revolutionary way.
    179195\CC~\cite{c++,ANSI14:C++} is an example of a similar project;
    180 however, it largely extended the language, and did not address existing problems.\footnote{%
     196however, it largely extended the language, and did not address many existing problems.\footnote{%
    181197Two important existing problems addressed were changing the type of character literals from ©int© to ©char© and enumerator from ©int© to the type of its enumerators.}
    182 Fortran~\cite{Fortran08}, Ada~\cite{Ada12}, and Cobol~\cite{Cobol14} are examples of programming languages that took an evolutionary approach, where modern language features are added and problems fixed within the framework of the existing language.
     198Fortran~\cite{Fortran08}, Ada~\cite{Ada12}, and Cobol~\cite{Cobol14} are examples of programming languages that took an evolutionary approach, where modern language features (e.g., objects, concurrency) are added and problems fixed within the framework of the existing language.
    183199Java~\cite{Java8}, Go~\cite{Go}, Rust~\cite{Rust} and D~\cite{D} are examples of the revolutionary approach for modernizing C/\CC, resulting in a new language rather than an extension of the descendent.
    184200These languages have different syntax and semantics from C, and do not interoperate directly with C, largely because of garbage collection.
    185201As a result, there is a significant learning curve to move to these languages, and C legacy-code must be rewritten.
    186 These costs can be prohibitive for many companies with a large software base in C/\CC, and many programmers that require retraining to a new programming language.
    187 
    188 The result of this project is a language that is largely backwards compatible with C11~\cite{C11}, but containing many modern language features and fixing some of the well known C problems.
    189 Without significant extension to the C programming language, C will be unable to cope with the needs of modern programming problems and programmers;
     202These costs can be prohibitive for many companies with a large software base in C/\CC, and a significant number of programmers requiring retraining to a new programming language.
     203
     204The result of this project is a language that is largely backwards compatible with C11~\cite{C11}, but fixing some of the well known C problems and containing many modern language features.
     205Without significant extension to the C programming language, it is becoming unable to cope with the needs of modern programming problems and programmers;
    190206as a result, it will fade into disuse.
    191207Considering the large body of existing C code and programmers, there is significant impetus to ensure C is transformed into a modern programming language.
     
    200216This feature allows users of \CFA to take advantage of the existing panoply of C libraries from inside their \CFA code.
    201217In fact, one of the biggest issues for any new programming language is establishing a minimum level of library code to support a large body of activities.
    202 Programming-language developers often state that adequate library support takes more work than designing and implementing the language itself.
     218Language developers often state that adequate library support takes more work than designing and implementing the language itself.
    203219Like \CC, \CFA starts with immediate access to all exiting C libraries, and in many cases, can easily wrap library routines with simpler and safer interfaces, at very low cost.
     220Hence, \CFA begins by leveraging the large repository of C libraries with little cost.
    204221
    205222However, it is necessary to differentiate between C and \CFA code because of name overloading, as for \CC.
    206 For example, the C math-library provides the following routines for computing the absolute value of the basic type: ©abs©, ©labs©, ©llabs©, ©fabs©, ©fabsf©, ©fabsl©, ©cabsf©, ©cabs©, and ©cabsl©.
    207 Whereas, \CFA wraps each of these routines into one with the common name ©abs©.
     223For example, the C math-library provides the following routines for computing the absolute value of the basic types: ©abs©, ©labs©, ©llabs©, ©fabs©, ©fabsf©, ©fabsl©, ©cabsf©, ©cabs©, and ©cabsl©.
     224Whereas, \CFA wraps each of these routines into ones with the common name ©abs©:
    208225\begin{lstlisting}
    209226char abs( char );
    210227extern "C" {
    211 int abs( int );                         // use default C routine for int
     228int abs( int );                                 // use default C routine for int
    212229} // extern "C"
    213230long int abs( long int );
     
    233250\section[Compiling CFA Program]{Compiling \CFA Program}
    234251
    235 The command ©cfa© is used to compile \CFA program(s).
    236 This command works like the GNU ©gcc©\index{gcc} command, e.g.:
     252The command ©cfa© is used to compile \CFA program(s), and is based on the GNU ©gcc©\index{gcc} command, e.g.:
    237253\begin{lstlisting}
    238254cfa§\indexc{cfa}\index{compilation!cfa@©cfa©}§ [ gcc-options ] C/§\CFA§-files [ assembler/loader-files ]
     
    240256By default, \CFA programs having the following ©gcc© flags turned on:
    241257\begin{description}
    242 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{-std=gnu99}\index{compilation option!-std=gnu99@{©-std=gnu99©}}
     258\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{-std=gnu99}\index{compilation option!-std=gnu99@{©-std=gnu99©}}
    243259The 1999 C standard plus GNU extensions.
    244 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{-fgnu89-¶inline¶}\index{compilation option!-fgnu89-inline@{©-fgnu89-¶inline¶©}}
     260\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{-fgnu89-¶inline¶}\index{compilation option!-fgnu89-inline@{©-fgnu89-¶inline¶©}}
    245261Use the traditional GNU semantics for inline routines in C99 mode, which allows inline routines in header files.
    246262\end{description}
    247263The following new \CFA option is available:
    248264\begin{description}
    249 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{-CFA}\index{compilation option!-CFA@{©-CFA©}}
     265\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{-CFA}\index{compilation option!-CFA@{©-CFA©}}
    250266Only the C preprocessor and the \CFA translator steps are performed and the transformed program is written to standard output, which makes it possible to examine the code generated by the \CFA translator.
    251267\end{description}
     
    253269The following preprocessor variables are available:
    254270\begin{description}
    255 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{__CFA__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA__@{©__CFA__©}}
     271\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{__CFA__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA__@{©__CFA__©}}
    256272is always available during preprocessing and its value is the current major \Index{version number} of \CFA.\footnote{
    257273The C preprocessor allows only integer values in a preprocessor variable so a value like ``\Version'' is not allowed.
    258274Hence, the need to have three variables for the major, minor and patch version number.}
    259275
    260 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{__CFA_MINOR__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA_MINOR__@{©__CFA_MINOR__©}}
     276\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{__CFA_MINOR__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA_MINOR__@{©__CFA_MINOR__©}}
    261277is always available during preprocessing and its value is the current minor \Index{version number} of \CFA.
    262278
    263 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{__CFA_PATCH__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA_PATCH__@©__CFA_PATCH__©}
     279\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{__CFA_PATCH__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA_PATCH__@©__CFA_PATCH__©}
    264280is always available during preprocessing and its value is the current patch \Index{version number} of \CFA.
    265281
    266 \item\hspace*{-4pt}\Indexc{__CFORALL__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFORALL__@©__CFORALL__©}
    267 is always available during preprocessing and it has no value.
     282\item\hspace*{-0.6ex}\Indexc{__CFA__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFA__@©__CFA__©} and \Indexc{__CFORALL__}\index{preprocessor variables!__CFORALL__@©__CFORALL__©}
     283are always available during preprocessing and have no value.
    268284\end{description}
    269285
     
    272288\begin{lstlisting}
    273289#ifndef __CFORALL__
    274 #include <stdio.h>                      // C header file
     290#include <stdio.h>                              // C header file
    275291#else
    276 #include <fstream>                      // §\CFA{}§ header file
     292#include <fstream>                              // §\CFA{}§ header file
    277293#endif
    278294\end{lstlisting}
     
    284300Numeric constants are extended to allow \Index{underscore}s within constants\index{constant!underscore}, e.g.:
    285301\begin{lstlisting}
    286 2®_®147®_®483®_®648;                            // decimal constant
    287 56_ul;                                          // decimal unsigned long constant
    288 0_377;                                          // octal constant
    289 0x_ff_ff;                                       // hexadecimal constant
    290 0x_ef3d_aa5c;                           // hexadecimal constant
    291 3.141_592_654;                          // floating point constant
    292 10_e_+1_00;                                     // floating point constant
    293 0x_ff_ff_p_3;                           // hexadecimal floating point
    294 0x_1.ffff_ffff_p_128_l;         // hexadecimal floating point long constant
    295 L_"\x_ff_ee";                           // wide character constant
     3022®_®147®_®483®_®648;                                    // decimal constant
     30356_ul;                                                  // decimal unsigned long constant
     3040_377;                                                  // octal constant
     3050x_ff_ff;                                               // hexadecimal constant
     3060x_ef3d_aa5c;                                   // hexadecimal constant
     3073.141_592_654;                                  // floating point constant
     30810_e_+1_00;                                             // floating point constant
     3090x_ff_ff_p_3;                                   // hexadecimal floating point
     3100x_1.ffff_ffff_p_128_l;                 // hexadecimal floating point long constant
     311L_"\x_ff_ee";                                   // wide character constant
    296312\end{lstlisting}
    297313The rules for placement of underscores is as follows:
     
    311327\end{enumerate}
    312328It is significantly easier to read and enter long constants when they are broken up into smaller groupings (most cultures use comma or period among digits for the same purpose).
    313 This extension is backwards compatible, matches with the use of underscore in variable names, and appears in Ada and Java.
     329This extension is backwards compatible, matches with the use of underscore in variable names, and appears in Ada and Java 8.
    314330
    315331
     
    321337\begin{quote2}
    322338\begin{tabular}{@{}ll@{}}
    323 \begin{lstlisting}[aboveskip=0pt,belowskip=0pt]
    324 int *x[ 5 ]
     339\begin{lstlisting}
     340int *x[5]
    325341\end{lstlisting}
    326342&
     
    332348For example, a routine returning a pointer to an array of integers is defined and used in the following way:
    333349\begin{lstlisting}
    334 int (*f())[ 5 ] {...};  // definition mimics usage
    335 ... (*f())[ 3 ] += 1;
     350int (*f())[5] {...};                    // definition mimics usage
     351... (*f())[3] += 1;
    336352\end{lstlisting}
    337353Essentially, the return type is wrapped around the routine name in successive layers (like an onion).
    338354While attempting to make the two contexts consistent was a laudable goal, it has not worked out in practice.
    339355
    340 \CFA provides its own type, variable and routine declarations, using a slightly different syntax.
    341 The new declarations place modifiers to the left of the base type, while C declarations place modifiers to the right of the base type.
     356\CFA provides its own type, variable and routine declarations, using a different syntax.
     357The new declarations place qualifiers to the left of the base type, while C declarations place qualifiers to the right of the base type.
     358In the following example, \R{red} is for the base type and \B{blue} is for the qualifiers.
     359The \CFA declarations move the qualifiers to the left of the base type, i.e., blue to the left of the red, while the qualifiers have the same meaning but are ordered left to left to right to specify the variable's type.
     360\begin{quote2}
     361\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     362\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     363\begin{lstlisting}
     364ß[5] *ß ®int® x1;
     365ß* [5]ß ®int® x2;
     366ß[* [5] int]ß f®( int p )®;
     367\end{lstlisting}
     368&
     369\begin{lstlisting}
     370®int® ß*ß x1 ß[5]ß;
     371®int® ß(*ßx2ß)[5]ß;
     372ßint (*ßf®( int p )®ß)[5]ß;
     373\end{lstlisting}
     374\end{tabular}
     375\end{quote2}
    342376The only exception is bit field specification, which always appear to the right of the base type.
    343 C and the new \CFA declarations may appear together in the same program block, but cannot be mixed within a specific declaration.
    344 
    345 In \CFA declarations, the same tokens are used as in C: the character ©*© is used to indicate a pointer, square brackets ©[©\,©]© are used to represent an array, and parentheses ©()© are used to indicate a routine parameter.
    346 However, unlike C, \CFA type declaration tokens are specified from left to right and the entire type specification is distributed across all variables in the declaration list.
     377% Specifically, the character ©*© is used to indicate a pointer, square brackets ©[©\,©]© are used to represent an array or function return value, and parentheses ©()© are used to indicate a routine parameter.
     378However, unlike C, \CFA type declaration tokens are distributed across all variables in the declaration list.
    347379For instance, variables ©x© and ©y© of type pointer to integer are defined in \CFA as follows:
    348380\begin{quote2}
    349 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    350 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    351 \begin{lstlisting}
    352 ®* int x, y;®
     381\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     382\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     383\begin{lstlisting}
     384®*® int x, y;
    353385\end{lstlisting}
    354386&
    355387\begin{lstlisting}
    356 int *x, *y;
     388int ®*®x, ®*®y;
    357389\end{lstlisting}
    358390\end{tabular}
     
    360392Other examples are:
    361393\begin{quote2}
    362 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{\hspace{20pt}}l@{}}
    363 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{20pt}}}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     394\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{\hspace{2em}}l@{}}
     395\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{2em}}}{\textbf{C}} \\
    364396\begin{lstlisting}
    365397[ 5 ] int z;
     
    397429\end{quote2}
    398430
    399 All type qualifiers, i.e., ©const© and ©volatile©, are used in the normal way with the new declarations but appear left to right, e.g.:
     431All type qualifiers, e.g., ©const©, ©volatile©, etc., are used in the normal way with the new declarations and also appear left to right, e.g.:
    400432\begin{quote2}
    401 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{\hspace{20pt}}l@{}}
    402 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{20pt}}}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     433\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{1em}}l@{\hspace{1em}}l@{}}
     434\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{1em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{1em}}}{\textbf{C}} \\
    403435\begin{lstlisting}
    404436const * const int x;
     
    417449\end{tabular}
    418450\end{quote2}
    419 All declaration qualifiers, i.e., ©extern©, ©static©, etc., are used in the normal way with the new declarations but can only appear at the start of a \CFA routine declaration,\footnote{\label{StorageClassSpecifier}
     451All declaration qualifiers, e.g., ©extern©, ©static©, etc., are used in the normal way with the new declarations but can only appear at the start of a \CFA routine declaration,\footnote{\label{StorageClassSpecifier}
    420452The placement of a storage-class specifier other than at the beginning of the declaration specifiers in a declaration is an obsolescent feature.~\cite[\S~6.11.5(1)]{C11}} e.g.:
    421453\begin{quote2}
    422 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{\hspace{20pt}}l@{}}
    423 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{20pt}}}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     454\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{\hspace{2em}}l@{}}
     455\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{2em}}}{\textbf{C}} \\
    424456\begin{lstlisting}
    425457extern [ 5 ] int x;
     
    443475e.g.:
    444476\begin{lstlisting}
    445 x;                                              // int x
    446 *y;                                             // int *y
    447 f( p1, p2 );                    // int f( int p1, int p2 );
    448 f( p1, p2 ) {}                  // int f( int p1, int p2 ) {}
    449 \end{lstlisting}
    450 
    451 As stated above, the two styles of declaration may appear together in the same block.
     477x;                                                              // int x
     478*y;                                                             // int *y
     479f( p1, p2 );                                    // int f( int p1, int p2 );
     480f( p1, p2 ) {}                                  // int f( int p1, int p2 ) {}
     481\end{lstlisting}
     482
     483Finally, new \CFA declarations may appear together with C declarations in the same program block, but cannot be mixed within a specific declaration.
    452484Therefore, a programmer has the option of either continuing to use traditional C declarations or take advantage of the new style.
    453485Clearly, both styles need to be supported for some time due to existing C-style header-files, particularly for UNIX systems.
     
    458490The new declaration syntax can be used in other contexts where types are required, e.g., casts and the pseudo-routine ©sizeof©:
    459491\begin{quote2}
    460 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    461 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    462 \begin{lstlisting}
    463 y = (* int)x;
    464 i = sizeof([ 5 ] * int);
     492\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     493\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     494\begin{lstlisting}
     495y = (®* int®)x;
     496i = sizeof(®[ 5 ] * int®);
    465497\end{lstlisting}
    466498&
    467499\begin{lstlisting}
    468 y = (int *)x;
    469 i = sizeof(int *[ 5 ]);
     500y = (®int *®)x;
     501i = sizeof(®int *[ 5 ]®);
    470502\end{lstlisting}
    471503\end{tabular}
     
    476508
    477509\CFA also supports a new syntax for routine definition, as well as ISO C and K\&R routine syntax.
    478 The point of the new syntax is to allow returning multiple values from a routine~\cite{CLU,Galletly96}, e.g.:
     510The point of the new syntax is to allow returning multiple values from a routine~\cite{Galletly96,CLU}, e.g.:
    479511\begin{lstlisting}
    480512®[ int o1, int o2, char o3 ]® f( int i1, char i2, char i3 ) {
     
    490522Declaration qualifiers can only appear at the start of a routine definition, e.g.:
    491523\begin{lstlisting}
    492 extern [ int x ] g( int y ) {§\,§}
     524®extern® [ int x ] g( int y ) {§\,§}
    493525\end{lstlisting}
    494526Lastly, if there are no output parameters or input parameters, the brackets and/or parentheses must still be specified;
    495527in both cases the type is assumed to be void as opposed to old style C defaults of int return type and unknown parameter types, respectively, as in:
    496528\begin{lstlisting}
    497 [§\,§] g();                                             // no input or output parameters
    498 [ void ] g( void );                     // no input or output parameters
     529[§\,§] g();                                                     // no input or output parameters
     530[ void ] g( void );                             // no input or output parameters
    499531\end{lstlisting}
    500532
     
    503535[ i, j, ch ] = f( 3, 'a', ch );
    504536\end{lstlisting}
    505 The list of return values from f and the grouping on the left-hand side of the assignment is called a tuple and discussed in Section 12.
     537The list of return values from f and the grouping on the left-hand side of the assignment is called a \newterm{return list} and discussed in Section 12.
    506538
    507539\CFA style declarations cannot be used to declare parameters for K\&R style routine definitions because of the following ambiguity:
     
    514546\begin{lstlisting}
    515547typedef int foo;
    516 int f( int (* foo) );           // foo is redefined as a parameter name
     548int f( int (* foo) );                   // foo is redefined as a parameter name
    517549\end{lstlisting}
    518550The string ``©int (* foo)©'' declares a C-style named-parameter of type pointer to an integer (the parenthesis are superfluous), while the same string declares a \CFA style unnamed parameter of type routine returning integer with unnamed parameter of type pointer to foo.
    519 The redefinition of a type name in a parameter list is the only context in C where the character ©*© can appear to the left of a type name, and \CFA relies on all type modifier characters appearing to the right of the type name.
     551The redefinition of a type name in a parameter list is the only context in C where the character ©*© can appear to the left of a type name, and \CFA relies on all type qualifier characters appearing to the right of the type name.
    520552The inability to use \CFA declarations in these two contexts is probably a blessing because it precludes programmers from arbitrarily switching between declarations forms within a declaration contexts.
    521553
    522554C-style declarations can be used to declare parameters for \CFA style routine definitions, e.g.:
    523555\begin{lstlisting}
    524 [ int ] f( * int, int * );      // returns an integer, accepts 2 pointers to integers
    525 [ * int, int * ] f( int );      // returns 2 pointers to integers, accepts an integer
     556[ int ] f( * int, int * );              // returns an integer, accepts 2 pointers to integers
     557[ * int, int * ] f( int );              // returns 2 pointers to integers, accepts an integer
    526558\end{lstlisting}
    527559The reason for allowing both declaration styles in the new context is for backwards compatibility with existing preprocessor macros that generate C-style declaration-syntax, as in:
    528560\begin{lstlisting}
    529561#define ptoa( n, d ) int (*n)[ d ]
    530 int f( ptoa(p,5) ) ...          // expands to int f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )
    531 [ int ] f( ptoa(p,5) ) ...      // expands to [ int ] f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )
     562int f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ...               // expands to int f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )
     563[ int ] f( ptoa( p, 5 ) ) ...   // expands to [ int ] f( int (*p)[ 5 ] )
    532564\end{lstlisting}
    533565Again, programmers are highly encouraged to use one declaration form or the other, rather than mixing the forms.
    534566
    535567
    536 \subsection{Returning Values}
    537 
    538 Named return values handle the case where it is necessary to define a local variable whose value is then returned in a ©return© statement, as in:
     568\subsection{Named Return Values}
     569
     570\Index{Named return values} handle the case where it is necessary to define a local variable whose value is then returned in a ©return© statement, as in:
    539571\begin{lstlisting}
    540572int f() {
     
    545577\end{lstlisting}
    546578Because the value in the return variable is automatically returned when a \CFA routine terminates, the ©return© statement \emph{does not} contain an expression, as in:
    547 \begin{lstlisting}
    548 ®[ int x ]® f() {
    549         ... x = 0; ... x = y; ...
    550         ®return;® // implicitly return x
    551 }
    552 \end{lstlisting}
    553 When the return is encountered, the current value of ©x© is returned to the calling routine.
     579\newline
     580\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
     581\begin{lstlisting}
     582®[ int x, int y ]® f() {
     583        int z;
     584        ... x = 0; ... y = z; ...
     585        ®return;® // implicitly return x, y
     586}
     587\end{lstlisting}
     588\end{minipage}
     589\newline
     590When the return is encountered, the current values of ©x© and ©y© are returned to the calling routine.
    554591As well, ``falling off the end'' of a routine without a ©return© statement is permitted, as in:
    555592\begin{lstlisting}
    556 [ int x ] f() {
    557         ... x = 0; ... x = y; ...
    558 } // implicitly return x
    559 \end{lstlisting}
    560 In this case, the current value of ©x© is returned to the calling routine just as if a ©return© had been encountered.
     593[ int x, int y ] f() {
     594        ...
     595} // implicitly return x, y
     596\end{lstlisting}
     597In this case, the current values of ©x© and ©y© are returned to the calling routine just as if a ©return© had been encountered.
    561598
    562599
     
    566603as well, parameter names are optional, e.g.:
    567604\begin{lstlisting}
    568 [ int x ] f ();                         // returning int with no parameters
    569 [ * int ] g (int y);            // returning pointer to int with int parameter
    570 [ ] h (int,char);                       // returning no result with int and char parameters
    571 [ * int,int ] j (int);          // returning pointer to int and int, with int parameter
     605[ int x ] f ();                                 // returning int with no parameters
     606[ * int ] g (int y);                    // returning pointer to int with int parameter
     607[ ] h (int,char);                               // returning no result with int and char parameters
     608[ * int,int ] j (int);                  // returning pointer to int and int, with int parameter
    572609\end{lstlisting}
    573610This syntax allows a prototype declaration to be created by cutting and pasting source text from the routine definition header (or vice versa).
    574611It is possible to declare multiple routine-prototypes in a single declaration, but the entire type specification is distributed across \emph{all} routine names in the declaration list (see~\VRef{s:Declarations}), e.g.:
    575612\begin{quote2}
    576 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    577 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     613\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     614\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    578615\begin{lstlisting}
    579616[ int ] f(int), g;
     
    604641for example, the following is incorrect:
    605642\begin{lstlisting}
    606 * [ int x ] f () fp;            // routine name "f" is not allowed
     643* [ int x ] f () fp;                    // routine name "f" is not allowed
    607644\end{lstlisting}
    608645
     
    737774While in theory default arguments can be simulated with overloading, as in:
    738775\begin{quote2}
    739 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    740 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{default arguments}}  & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{overloading}}      \\
     776\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     777\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{default arguments}}   & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{overloading}}      \\
    741778\begin{lstlisting}
    742779void p( int x, int y = 2, int z = 3 ) {...}
     
    773810\CFA allows \Index{type nesting}, and type qualification of the nested types, where as C hoists\index{type hoisting} (refactors) nested types into the enclosing scope and has no type qualification.
    774811\begin{quote2}
    775 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l|l@{}}
    776 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{C Type Nesting}}     & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C Implicit Hoisting}}      & \multicolumn{1}{|c}{\textbf{\CFA}}    \\
     812\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l|l@{}}
     813\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{C Type Nesting}}      & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C Implicit Hoisting}}      & \multicolumn{1}{|c}{\textbf{\CFA}}    \\
    777814\hline
    778815\begin{lstlisting}
     
    880917
    881918
    882 \section{Tuples}
     919\section{Lexical List}
    883920
    884921In C and \CFA, lists of elements appear in several contexts, such as the parameter list for a routine call.
    885922(More contexts are added shortly.)
    886 A list of such elements is called a tuple.
    887 The general syntax of a tuple is:
     923A list of such elements is called a \newterm{lexical list}.
     924The general syntax of a lexical list is:
    888925\begin{lstlisting}
    889926[ §\emph{exprlist}§ ]
    890927\end{lstlisting}
    891928where ©$\emph{exprlist}$© is a list of one or more expressions separated by commas.
    892 The brackets, ©[]©, allow differentiating between tuples and expressions containing the C comma operator.
    893 The following are examples of tuples:
     929The brackets, ©[]©, allow differentiating between lexical lists and expressions containing the C comma operator.
     930The following are examples of lexical lists:
    894931\begin{lstlisting}
    895932[ x, y, z ]
     
    11801217\begin{figure}
    11811218\centering
    1182 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    1183 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     1219\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     1220\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    11841221\begin{lstlisting}
    11851222®L1:® for ( ... ) {
     
    12111248\vspace*{0.25in}
    12121249
    1213 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    1214 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     1250\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     1251\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{C}}        \\
    12151252\begin{lstlisting}
    12161253®L1®: for ( ... ) {
     
    14531490Therefore, the ©case© clause is extended with a list of values, as in:
    14541491\begin{quote2}
    1455 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{\hspace{20pt}}l@{}}
    1456 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{20pt}}}{\textbf{C}}        \\
     1492\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{\hspace{2em}}l@{}}
     1493\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{2em}}}{\textbf{C}} \\
    14571494\begin{lstlisting}
    14581495switch ( i ) {
     
    14851522In addition, two forms of subranges are allowed to specify case values: the GNU C form and a new \CFA form.
    14861523\begin{quote2}
    1487 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{\hspace{20pt}}l@{}}
    1488 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{20pt}}}{\textbf{GNU C}}    \\
     1524\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{\hspace{2em}}l@{}}
     1525\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{2em}}}{\textbf{GNU C}}     \\
    14891526\begin{lstlisting}
    14901527switch ( i ) {
     
    20072044Auto type-inferencing occurs in a declaration where a variable's type is inferred from its initialization expression type.
    20082045\begin{quote2}
    2009 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}ll@{}}
    2010 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CC}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{©gcc©}\index{gcc} \\
     2046\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}ll@{}}
     2047\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CC}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{©gcc©}\index{gcc} \\
    20112048\begin{lstlisting}
    20122049
     
    41104147The general case is printing out a sequence of variables separated by whitespace.
    41114148\begin{quote2}
    4112 \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{30pt}}l@{}}
    4113 \multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{30pt}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}       & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{\CC}}      \\
     4149\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}l@{}}
     4150\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{\CFA}}        & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{\CC}}      \\
    41144151\begin{lstlisting}
    41154152int x = 0, y = 1, z = 2;
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.