# source:doc/theses/mike_brooks_MMath/background.tex

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1\chapter{Background}
2
3Since this work builds on C, it is necessary to explain the C mechanisms and their shortcomings for array, linked list, and string.
4
5
6\section{Array}
7
8At the start, the C programming language made a significant design mistake.
9\begin{quote}
10In C, there is a strong relationship between pointers and arrays, strong enough that pointers and arrays really should be treated simultaneously.
11Any operation which can be achieved by array subscripting can also be done with pointers.~\cite[p.~93]{C:old}
12\end{quote}
13Accessing any storage requires pointer arithmetic, even if it is just base-displacement addressing in an instruction.
14The conjoining of pointers and arrays could also be applied to structures, where a pointer references a structure field like an array element.
15Finally, while subscripting involves pointer arithmetic (as does field references @x.y.z@), it is very complex for multi-dimensional arrays and requires array descriptors to know stride lengths along dimensions.
16Many C errors result from performing pointer arithmetic instead of using subscripting.
17Some C textbooks erroneously teach pointer arithmetic suggesting it is faster than subscripting.
18
19C semantics want a programmer to \emph{believe} an array variable is a pointer to its first element.''
20This desire becomes apparent by a detailed inspection of an array declaration.
21\lstinput{34-34}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
22The inspection begins by using @sizeof@ to provide definite program semantics for the intuition of an expression's type.
23\lstinput{35-36}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
24Now consider the sizes of expressions derived from @ar@, modified by adding pointer to'' and first element'' (and including unnecessary parentheses to avoid confusion about precedence).
25\lstinput{37-40}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
26Given the size of @float@ is 4, the size of @ar@ with 10 floats being 40 bytes is common reasoning for C programmers.
27Equally, C programmers know the size of a \emph{pointer} to the first array element is 8 (or 4 depending on the addressing architecture).
28% Now, set aside for a moment the claim that this first assertion is giving information about a type.
29Clearly, an array and a pointer to its first element are different things.
30
31In fact, the idea that there is such a thing as a pointer to an array may be surprising and it is not the same thing as a pointer to the first element.
32\lstinput{42-45}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
33The first assignment gets
34\begin{cfa}
35warning: assignment to float (*)[10]' from incompatible pointer type float *'
36\end{cfa}
37and the second assignment gets the opposite.
38
39The inspection now refutes any suggestion that @sizeof@ is informing about allocation rather than type information.
40Note, @sizeof@ has two forms, one operating on an expression and the other on a type.
41Using the type form yields the same results as the prior expression form.
42\lstinput{46-49}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
43The results are also the same when there is \emph{no allocation} using a pointer-to-array type.
44\lstinput{51-57}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
45Hence, in all cases, @sizeof@ is informing about type information.
46
47So, thinking of an array as a pointer to its first element is too simplistic an analogue and it is not backed up by the type system.
48This misguided analogue works for a single-dimension array but there is no advantage other than possibly teaching beginning programmers about basic runtime array-access.
49
50Continuing, a short form for declaring array variables exists using length information provided implicitly by an initializer.
51\lstinput{59-62}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
52The compiler counts the number of initializer elements and uses this value as the first dimension.
53Unfortunately, the implicit element counting does not extend to dimensions beyond the first.
54\lstinput{64-67}{bkgd-carray-arrty.c}
55
56My contribution is recognizing:
57\begin{itemize}
58        \item There is value in using a type that knows its size.
59        \item The type pointer to (first) element does not.
60        \item C \emph{has} a type that knows the whole picture: array, e.g. @T[10]@.
61        \item This type has all the usual derived forms, which also know the whole picture.
62        A usefully noteworthy example is pointer to array, e.g. @T (*)[10]@.\footnote{
63        The parenthesis are necessary because subscript has higher priority than pointer in C declarations.
64        (Subscript also has higher priority than dereference in C expressions.)}
65\end{itemize}
66
67
69
70A significant area of confusion for reading C declarations results from embedding a declared variable in a declaration, mimicking the way the variable is used in executable statements.
71\begin{cquote}
72\begin{tabular}{@{}ll@{}}
73\multicolumn{1}{@{}c}{\textbf{Array}} & \multicolumn{1}{c@{}}{\textbf{Function Pointer}} \\
74\begin{cfa}
75int @(*@ar@)[@5@]@; // definition
76  ... @(*@ar@)[@3@]@ += 1; // usage
77\end{cfa}
78&
79\begin{cfa}
80int @(*@f@())[@5@]@ { ... }; // definition
81  ... @(*@f@())[@3@]@ += 1; // usage
82\end{cfa}
83\end{tabular}
84\end{cquote}
85Essentially, the type is wrapped around the name in successive layers (like an \Index{onion}).
86While attempting to make the two contexts consistent is a laudable goal, it has not worked out in practice, even though Dennis Richie believed otherwise:
87\begin{quote}
88In spite of its difficulties, I believe that the C's approach to declarations remains plausible, and am comfortable with it; it is a useful unifying principle.~\cite[p.~12]{Ritchie93}
89\end{quote}
90After all, reading a C array type is easy: just read it from the inside out, and know when to look left and when to look right!
91
92\CFA provides its own type, variable and routine declarations, using a simpler syntax.
93The new declarations place qualifiers to the left of the base type, while C declarations place qualifiers to the right of the base type.
94The qualifiers have the same meaning in \CFA as in C.
95Then, a \CFA declaration is read left to right, where a function return type is enclosed in brackets @[@\,@]@.
96\begin{cquote}
97\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{\hspace{3em}}ll@{}}
98\multicolumn{1}{c@{\hspace{3em}}}{\textbf{C}}   & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{\CFA}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{read left to right}}   \\
99\begin{cfa}
100int @*@ x1 @[5]@;
101int @(*@x2@)[5]@;
102int @(*@f( int p )@)[5]@;
103\end{cfa}
104&
105\begin{cfa}
106@[5] *@ int x1;
107@* [5]@ int x2;
108@[ * [5] int ]@ f( int p );
109\end{cfa}
110&
111\begin{cfa}
112// array of 5 pointers to int
113// pointer to array of 5 int
114// function returning pointer to array of 5 ints
115\end{cfa}
116\\
117& &
118\LstCommentStyle{//\ \ \ and taking an int argument}
119\end{tabular}
120\end{cquote}
121As declaration complexity increases, it becomes corresponding difficult to read and understand the C declaration form.
122Note, writing declarations left to right is common in other programming languages, where the function return-type is often placed after the parameter declarations.
123
124\VRef[Table]{bkgd:ar:usr:avp} introduces the many layers of the C and \CFA array story, where the \CFA story is discussion in \VRef{XXX}.
125The \CFA-thesis column shows the new array declaration form, which is my contributed improvements for safety and ergonomics.
126The table shows there are multiple yet equivalent forms for the array types under discussion, and subsequent discussion shows interactions with orthogonal (but easily confused) language features.
127Each row of the table shows alternate syntactic forms.
128The simplest occurrences of types distinguished in the preceding discussion are marked with $\triangleright$.
129Removing the declared variable @x@, gives the type used for variable, structure field, cast or error messages \PAB{(though note Section TODO points out that some types cannot be casted to)}.
130Unfortunately, parameter declarations \PAB{(section TODO)} have more syntactic forms and rules.
131
132\begin{table}
133\centering
134\caption{Syntactic Reference for Array vs Pointer. Includes interaction with \lstinline{const}ness.}
135\label{bkgd:ar:usr:avp}
136\begin{tabular}{ll|l|l|l}
137        & Description & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{C} & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{\CFA}  & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\CFA-thesis} \\
138        \hline
139$\triangleright$ & value & @T x;@ & @T x;@ & \\
140        \hline
141        & immutable value & @const T x;@ & @const T x;@ & \\
142        & & @T const x;@ & @T const x;@ & \\
143        \hline \hline
144$\triangleright$ & pointer to value & @T * x;@ & @* T x;@ & \\
145        \hline
146        & immutable ptr. to val. & @T * const x;@ & @const * T x;@ & \\
147        \hline
148        & ptr. to immutable val. & @const T * x;@ & @* const T x;@ & \\
149        & & @T const * x;@ & @* T const x;@ & \\
150        \hline \hline
151$\triangleright$ & array of value & @T x[10];@ & @[10] T x@ & @array(T, 10) x@ \\
152        \hline
153        & ar.\ of immutable val. & @const T x[10];@ & @[10] const T x@ & @const array(T, 10) x@ \\
154    & & @T const x[10];@ & @[10] T const x@ & @array(T, 10) const x@ \\
155        \hline
156        & ar.\ of ptr.\ to value & @T * x[10];@ & @[10] * T x@ & @array(T *, 10) x@ \\
157        & & & & @array(* T, 10) x@ \\
158        \hline
159        & ar.\ of imm. ptr.\ to val. & @T * const x[10];@ & @[10] const * T x@ & @array(* const T, 10) x@ \\
160        & & & & @array(const * T, 10) x@ \\
161        \hline
162        & ar.\ of ptr.\ to imm. val. & @const T * x[10];@ & @[10] * const T x@ & @array(const T *, 10) x@ \\
163        & & @T const * x[10];@ & @[10] * T const x@ & @array(* const T, 10) x@ \\
164        \hline \hline
165$\triangleright$ & ptr.\ to ar.\ of value & @T (*x)[10];@ & @* [10] T x@ & @* array(T, 10) x@ \\
166        \hline
167        & imm. ptr.\ to ar.\ of val. & @T (* const x)[10];@ & @const * [10] T x@ & @const * array(T, 10) x@ \\
168        \hline
169        & ptr.\ to ar.\ of imm. val. & @const T (*x)[10];@ & @* [10] const T x@ & @* const array(T, 10) x@ \\
170        & & @T const (*x)[10];@ & @* [10] T const x@ & @* array(T, 10) const x@ \\
171        \hline
172        & ptr.\ to ar.\ of ptr.\ to val. & @T *(*x)[10];@ & @* [10] * T x@ & @* array(T *, 10) x@ \\
173        & & & & @* array(* T, 10) x@ \\
174        \hline
175\end{tabular}
176\end{table}
177
178TODO: Address these parked unfortunate syntaxes
179\begin{itemize}
180        \item static
181        \item star as dimension
182        \item under pointer decay: @int p1[const 3]@ being @int const *p1@
183\end{itemize}
184
185
186\subsection{Arrays decay and pointers diffract}
187
188The last section established the difference between these four types:
189\lstinput{3-6}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
190But the expression used for obtaining the pointer to the first element is pedantic.
191The root of all C programmer experience with arrays is the shortcut
192\lstinput{8-8}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
193which reproduces @pa0@, in type and value:
194\lstinput{9-9}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
195The validity of this initialization is unsettling, in the context of the facts established in the last section.
196Notably, it initializes name @pa0x@ from expression @ar@, when they are not of the same type:
197\lstinput{10-10}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
198
199So, C provides an implicit conversion from @float[10]@ to @float *@.
200\begin{quote}
201Except when it is the operand of the @sizeof@ operator, or the unary @&@ operator, or is a string literal used to
202initialize an array an expression that has type array of \emph{type}'' is converted to an expression with type
203pointer to \emph{type}'' that points to the initial element of the array object~\cite[\S~6.3.2.1.3]{C11}
204\end{quote}
205This phenomenon is the famous pointer decay,'' which is a decay of an array-typed expression into a pointer-typed one.
206It is worthy to note that the list of exception cases does not feature the occurrence of @ar@ in @ar[i]@.
207Thus, subscripting happens on pointers not arrays.
208
209Subscripting proceeds first with pointer decay, if needed.  Next, \cite[\S~6.5.2.1.2]{C11} explains that @ar[i]@ is treated as if it were @(*((a)+(i)))@.
210\cite[\S~6.5.6.8]{C11} explains that the addition, of a pointer with an integer type,  is defined only when the pointer refers to an element that is in an array, with a meaning of @i@ elements away from,'' which is valid if @ar@ is big enough and @i@ is small enough.
211Finally, \cite[\S~6.5.3.2.4]{C11} explains that the @*@ operator's result is the referenced element.
212Taken together, these rules illustrate that @ar[i]@ and @i[a]@ mean the same thing!
213
214Subscripting a pointer when the target is standard-inappropriate is still practically well-defined.
215While the standard affords a C compiler freedom about the meaning of an out-of-bound access,
216or of subscripting a pointer that does not refer to an array element at all,
217the fact that C is famously both generally high-performance, and specifically not bound-checked,
218leads to an expectation that the runtime handling is uniform across legal and illegal accesses.
219Moreover, consider the common pattern of subscripting on a @malloc@ result:
220\begin{cfa}
221float * fs = malloc( 10 * sizeof(float) );
222fs[5] = 3.14;
223\end{cfa}
224The @malloc@ behaviour is specified as returning a pointer to space for an object whose size is'' as requested (\cite[\S~7.22.3.4.2]{C11}).
225But \emph{nothing} more is said about this pointer value, specifically that its referent might \emph{be} an array allowing subscripting.
226
227Under this assumption, a pointer being subscripted (or added to, then dereferenced) by any value (positive, zero, or negative), gives a view of the program's entire address space, centred around the @p@ address, divided into adjacent @sizeof(*p)@ chunks, each potentially (re)interpreted as @typeof(*p)@.
228I call this phenomenon array diffraction,''  which is a diffraction of a single-element pointer into the assumption that its target is in the middle of an array whose size is unlimited in both directions.
229No pointer is exempt from array diffraction.
230No array shows its elements without pointer decay.
231
232A further pointer--array confusion, closely related to decay, occurs in parameter declarations.
233\cite[\S~6.7.6.3.7]{C11} explains that when an array type is written for a parameter,
234the parameter's type becomes a type that can be summarized as the array-decayed type.
235The respective handling of the following two parameter spellings shows that the array-spelled one is really, like the other, a pointer.
236\lstinput{12-16}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
237As the @sizeof(x)@ meaning changed, compared with when run on a similarly-spelled local variable declaration,
238@gcc@ also gives this code the warning for the first assertion:
239\begin{cfa}
240warning: 'sizeof' on array function parameter 'x' will return size of 'float *'
241\end{cfa}
242The caller of such a function is left with the reality that a pointer parameter is a pointer, no matter how it is spelled:
243\lstinput{18-21}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
244This fragment gives no warnings.
245
246The shortened parameter syntax @T x[]@ is a further way to spell pointer.''
247Note the opposite meaning of this spelling now, compared with its use in local variable declarations.
248This point of confusion is illustrated in:
249\lstinput{23-30}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
250The basic two meanings, with a syntactic difference helping to distinguish,
251are illustrated in the declarations of @ca@ vs.\ @cp@,
252whose subsequent @edit@ calls behave differently.
253The syntax-caused confusion is in the comparison of the first and last lines,
254both of which use a literal to initialize an object declared with spelling @T x[]@.
255But these initialized declarations get opposite meanings,
256depending on whether the object is a local variable or a parameter.
257
258In summary, when a function is written with an array-typed parameter,
259\begin{itemize}
260        \item an appearance of passing an array by value is always an incorrect understanding
261        \item a dimension value, if any is present, is ignored
262        \item pointer decay is forced at the call site and the callee sees the parameter having the decayed type
263\end{itemize}
264
265Pointer decay does not affect pointer-to-array types, because these are already pointers, not arrays.
266As a result, a function with a pointer-to-array parameter sees the parameter exactly as the caller does:
267\lstinput{32-42}{bkgd-carray-decay.c}
268\VRef[Table]{bkgd:ar:usr:decay-parm} gives the reference for the decay phenomenon seen in parameter declarations.
269
270\begin{table}
271\caption{Syntactic Reference for Decay during Parameter-Passing.
272Includes interaction with \lstinline{const}ness, where immutable'' refers to a restriction on the callee's ability.}
273\label{bkgd:ar:usr:decay-parm}
274\centering
275\begin{tabular}{llllll}
276        & Description & Type & Parameter Declaration & \CFA  \\
277        \hline
278        & & & @T * x,@ & @* T x,@ \\
279$\triangleright$ & pointer to value & @T *@ & @T x[10],@ & @[10] T x,@ \\
280        & & & @T x[],@ & @[] T x,@ \\
281        \hline
282        & & & @T * const x,@ & @const * T x@ \\
283        & immutable ptr.\ to val. & @T * const@ & @T x[const 10],@ & @[const 10] T x,@ \\
284        & & & @T x[const],@ & @[const] T x,@\\
285        \hline
286        & & & @const T * x,@ & @ * const T x,@ \\
287        & &     & @T const * x,@ & @ * T const x,@ \\
288        & ptr.\ to immutable val. & @const T *@ & @const T x[10],@ & @[10] const T x,@ \\
289        & & @T const *@ & @T const x[10],@ &  @[10] T const x,@ \\
290        & & & @const T x[],@ & @[] const T x,@ \\
291        & & & @T const x[],@ & @[] T const x,@ \\
292        \hline \hline
293        & & & @T (*x)[10],@ & @* [10] T x,@ \\
294$\triangleright$ & ptr.\ to ar.\ of val. & @T(*)[10]@ & @T x[3][10],@ & @[3][10] T x,@ \\
295        & & & @T x[][10],@ & @[][10] T x,@ \\
296        \hline
297        & & & @T ** x,@ & @** T x,@ \\
298        & ptr.\ to ptr.\ to val. & @T **@ & @T * x[10],@ & @[10] * T x,@ \\
299        & & & @T * x[],@ & @[] * T x,@ \\
300        \hline
301        & ptr.\ to ptr.\ to imm.\ val. & @const char **@ & @const char * argv[],@ & @[] * const char argv,@ \\
302    & & & \emph{others elided} & \emph{others elided} \\
303        \hline
304\end{tabular}
305\end{table}
306
307
308\subsection{Lengths may vary, checking does not}
309
310When the desired number of elements is unknown at compile time, a variable-length array is a solution:
311\begin{cfa}
312int main( int argc, const char * argv[] ) {
313        assert( argc == 2 );
314        size_t n = atol( argv[1] );
315        assert( 0 < n );
316        float ar[n];
317        float b[10];
318        // ... discussion continues here
319}
320\end{cfa}
321This arrangement allocates @n@ elements on the @main@ stack frame for @ar@, called a \newterm{variable length array} (VLA), as well as 10 elements in the same stack frame for @b@.
322The variable-sized allocation of @ar@ is provided by the @alloca@ routine, which bumps the stack pointer.
323Note, the C standard supports VLAs~\cite[\S~6.7.6.2.4]{C11} as a conditional feature, but the \CC standard does not;
324both @gcc@ and @g++@ support VLAs.
325As well, there is misinformation about VLAs, \eg VLAs cause stack failures or are inefficient.
326VLAs exist as far back as Algol W~\cite[\S~5.2]{AlgolW} and are a sound and efficient data type.
327
328For high-performance applications, the stack size can be fixed and small (coroutines or user-level threads).
329Here, VLAs can overflow the stack, so a heap allocation is used.
330\begin{cfa}
331float * ax1 = malloc( sizeof( float[n] ) );
332float * ax2 = malloc( n * sizeof( float ) );
333float * bx1 = malloc( sizeof( float[1000000] ) );
334float * bx2 = malloc( 1000000 * sizeof( float ) );
335\end{cfa}
336
337Parameter dependency
338
339Checking is best-effort / unsound
340
341Limited special handling to get the dimension value checked (static)
342
343
344\subsection{Dynamically sized, multidimensional arrays}
345
346In C and \CC, multidimensional array'' means array of arrays.''  Other meanings are discussed in TODO.
347
348Just as an array's element type can be @float@, so can it be @float[10]@.
349
350While any of @float*@, @float[10]@ and @float(*)[10]@ are easy to tell apart from @float@, telling them apart from each other may need occasional reference back to TODO intro section.
351The sentence derived by wrapping each type in @-[3]@ follows.
352
353While any of @float*[3]@, @float[3][10]@ and @float(*)[3][10]@ are easy to tell apart from @float[3]@,
354telling them apart from each other is what it takes to know what array of arrays'' really means.
355
356Pointer decay affects the outermost array only
357
358TODO: unfortunate syntactic reference with these cases:
359
360\begin{itemize}
361        \item ar. of ar. of val (be sure about ordering of dimensions when the declaration is dropped)
362        \item ptr. to ar. of ar. of val
363\end{itemize}
364
365
366\subsection{Arrays are (but) almost values}
367
368Has size; can point to
369
370Can't cast to
371
372Can't pass as value
373
374Can initialize
375
376Can wrap in aggregate
377
378Can't assign
379
380
381\subsection{Returning an array is (but) almost possible}
382
383
384\subsection{The pointer-to-array type has been noticed before}
385
386\subsection{Multi-Dimensional}
387
388As in the last section, we inspect the declaration ...
389\lstinput{16-18}{bkgd-carray-mdim.c}
390The significant axis of deriving expressions from @ar@ is now itself,'' first element'' or first grand-element (meaning, first element of first element).''
391\lstinput{20-44}{bkgd-carray-mdim.c}
392
393
395
396Linked-lists are blocks of storage connected using one or more pointers.
397The storage block is logically divided into data (user payload) and links (list pointers), where the links are the only component used by the list structure.
398Since the data is opaque, list structures are often polymorphic over the data, which is often homogeneous.
399
400Linking is used to build data structures, which are a group of nodes, containing data and links, organized in a particular format, with specific operations peculiar to that format, \eg queue, tree, hash table, \etc.
401Because a node's existence is independent of the data structure that organizes it, all nodes are manipulated by address not value;
402hence, all data structure routines take and return pointers to nodes and not the nodes themselves.
403
404
405\begin{comment}
407
408C only supports type-eraser polymorphism, with no help from the type system.
409This approach is used in the @queue@ library providing macros that define and operate on four types of data structures: singly-linked lists, singly-linked tail queues, lists, and tail queues.
410These linked structures are \newterm{intrusive list}, where the link fields are defined (intrude) with data fields.
411\begin{cfa}
412struct DS {
413        // link fields, intrustive
414        // data fields
415}
416\end{cfa}
417
418\uCpp~\cite{uC++} is a concurrent extension of \CC, and provides a basic set of intrusive lists, where the link fields are defined with the data fields using inheritance.
419\begin{cfa}
420struct DS : public uColable {
421        // implicit link fields
422        // data fields
423}
424\end{cfa}
425
426Intrusive nodes eliminate the need to dynamically allocate/deallocate the link fields when a node is added/removed to/from a data-structure.
427Reducing dynamic allocation is important in concurrent programming because the heap is a shared resource with the potential for high contention.
428The two formats are one link field, which form a \Index{collection}, and two link fields, which form a \Index{sequence}.
429\begin{center}
430%\input{DSLNodes}
431\end{center}
432@uStack@ and @uQueue@ are collections and @uSequence@ is a sequence.
433To get the appropriate link fields associated with a user node, it must be a public descendant of @uColable@\index{uColable@@uColable@} or @uSeqable@\index{uSeqable@@uSeqable@}, respectively, e.g.:
434%[
435class stacknode : public uColable { ... }
436class queuenode : public uColable { ... }
437class seqnode : public uSeqable { ... }
438%]
439A node inheriting from @uSeqable@ can appear in a sequence/collection but a node inheriting from @uColable@ can only appear in a collection.
440Along with providing the appropriate link fields, the types @uColable@ and @uSeqable@ also provide one member routine:
441%[
442bool listed() const;
443%]
444which returns @true@ if the node is an element of any collection or sequence and @false@ otherwise.
445
446Finally, no header files are necessary to access the uC DSL.
447
448Some uC DSL restrictions are:
449\begin{itemize}
450\item
451None of the member routines are virtual in any of the data structures for efficiency reasons.
452Therefore, pointers to data structures must be used with care or incorrect member routines may be invoked.
453\end{itemize}
454\end{comment}
455
456
457\subsection{Design Issues}
458\label{toc:lst:issue}
459
460This section introduces the design space for linked lists that target \emph{system programmers}.
461Within this restricted target, all design-issue discussions assume the following invariants.
462Alternatives to the assumptions are discussed under Future Work (Section~\ref{toc:lst:futwork}).
463\begin{itemize}
464    \item A doubly-linked list is being designed.
465          Generally, the discussed issues apply similarly for singly-linked lists.
466          Circular \vs ordered linking is discussed under List identity (Section~\ref{toc:lst:issue:ident}).
467    \item Link fields are system-managed.
468          The user works with the system-provided API to query and modify list membership.
469          The system has freedom over how to represent these links.
470        \item The user data must provide storage for the list link-fields.
471          Hence, a list node is \emph{statically} defined as data and links \vs a node that is \emph{dynamically} constructed from data and links \see{\VRef{toc:lst:issue:attach}}.
472\end{itemize}
473
474
476
477Two preexisting linked-list libraries are used throughout, to show examples of the concepts being defined,
478and further libraries are introduced as needed.
479\begin{enumerate}
480    \item Linux Queue library\cite{lst:linuxq} (LQ) of @<sys/queue.h>@.
481    \item \CC Standard Template Library's (STL)\footnote{The term STL is contentious as some people prefer the term standard library.} @std::list@\cite{lst:stl}
482\end{enumerate}
483A general comparison of libraries' abilities is given under Related Work (Section~\ref{toc:lst:relwork}).
484
485For the discussion, assume the fictional type @req@ (request) is the user's payload in examples.
486As well, the list library is helping the user manage (organize) requests, \eg a request can be work on the level of handling a network arrival event or scheduling a thread.
487
488
489\subsection{Link attachment: Intrusive vs.\ Wrapped}
490\label{toc:lst:issue:attach}
491
492Link attachment deals with the question:
493Where are the libraries' inter-element link fields stored, in relation to the user's payload data fields?
494Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-attach} shows three basic styles.
495The \newterm{intrusive} style places the link fields inside the payload structure.
496The two \newterm{wrapped} styles place the payload inside a generic library-provided structure that then defines the link fields.
497Library LQ is intrusive; STL is wrapped.
498The wrapped style further distinguishes between wrapping a reference and wrapping a value, \eg @list<req *>@ or @list<req>@.
499(For this discussion, @list<req &>@ is similar to @list<req *>@.)
500This difference is one of user style, not framework capability.
501
502\begin{comment}
503\begin{figure}
504    \begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{Y|Y|Y}
505                \lstinput[language=C]{20-39}{lst-issues-intrusive.run.c}
506        &\lstinputlisting[language=C++]{20-39}{lst-issues-wrapped-byref.run.cpp}
507        &\lstinputlisting[language=C++]{20-39}{lst-issues-wrapped-emplaced.run.cpp}
508      \\ & &
509      \\
510        \includegraphics[page=1]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
511        &
512        \includegraphics[page=2]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
513        &
514        \includegraphics[page=3]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
515      \\ & &
516      \\
517        (a) & (b) & (c)
518    \end{tabularx}
519\caption{
520        Three styles of link attachment: (a)~intrusive, (b)~wrapped reference, and (c)~wrapped value.
521        The diagrams show the memory layouts that result after the code runs, eliding the head object \lstinline{reqs};
522        head objects are discussed in Section~\ref{toc:lst:issue:ident}.
523        In (a), the field \lstinline{req.x} names a list direction;
524        these are discussed in Section~\ref{toc:lst:issue:simultaneity}.
525        In (b) and (c), the type \lstinline{node} represents a system-internal type,
526        which is \lstinline{std::_List_node} in the GNU implementation.
527        (TODO: cite? found in  /usr/include/c++/7/bits/stl\_list.h )
528    }
529     \label{fig:lst-issues-attach}
530\end{figure}
531\end{comment}
532
533\begin{figure}
534\centering
535\newsavebox{\myboxA}                                    % used with subfigure
536\newsavebox{\myboxB}
537\newsavebox{\myboxC}
538
539\begin{lrbox}{\myboxA}
540\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{}}
541\lstinput[language=C]{20-35}{lst-issues-intrusive.run.c} \\
542\includegraphics[page=1]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
543\end{tabular}
544\end{lrbox}
545
546\begin{lrbox}{\myboxB}
547\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{}}
548\lstinput[language=C++]{20-35}{lst-issues-wrapped-byref.run.cpp} \\
549\includegraphics[page=2]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
550\end{tabular}
551\end{lrbox}
552
553\begin{lrbox}{\myboxC}
554\begin{tabular}{@{}l@{}}
555\lstinput[language=C++]{20-35}{lst-issues-wrapped-emplaced.run.cpp} \\
556\includegraphics[page=3]{lst-issues-attach.pdf}
557\end{tabular}
558\end{lrbox}
559
560\subfloat[Intrusive]{\label{f:Intrusive}\usebox\myboxA}
561\hspace{6pt}
562\vrule
563\hspace{6pt}
564\subfloat[Wrapped reference]{\label{f:WrappedRef}\usebox\myboxB}
565\hspace{6pt}
566\vrule
567\hspace{6pt}
568\subfloat[Wrapped value]{\label{f:WrappedValue}\usebox\myboxC}
569
570\caption{
571        Three styles of link attachment:
572                % \protect\subref*{f:Intrusive}~intrusive, \protect\subref*{f:WrappedRef}~wrapped reference, and \protect\subref*{f:WrappedValue}~wrapped value.
573        The diagrams show the memory layouts that result after the code runs, eliding the head object \lstinline{reqs};
574        head objects are discussed in Section~\ref{toc:lst:issue:ident}.
575        In \protect\subref*{f:Intrusive}, the field \lstinline{req.d} names a list direction;
576        these are discussed in Section~\ref{toc:lst:issue:simultaneity}.
577        In \protect\subref*{f:WrappedRef} and \protect\subref*{f:WrappedValue}, the type \lstinline{node} represents a
578                library-internal type, which is \lstinline{std::_List_node} in the GNU implementation
579        \see{\lstinline{/usr/include/c++/X/bits/stl_list.h}, where \lstinline{X} is the \lstinline{g++} version number}.
580    }
581    \label{fig:lst-issues-attach}
582\end{figure}
583
584Each diagrammed example is using the fewest dynamic allocations for its respective style:
585in \subref*{f:Intrusive}, here are no dynamic allocations, in \subref*{f:WrappedRef} only the linked fields are dynamically allocated, and in \subref*{f:WrappedValue} the copied data and linked fields are dynamically allocated.
586The advantage of intrusive attachment is the control in memory layout and storage placement.
587Both wrapped attachment styles have independent storage layout and imply library-induced heap allocations, with lifetime that matches the item's membership in the list.
588In all three cases, a @req@ object can enter and leave a list many times.
589However, in \subref*{f:Intrusive} a @req@ can only be on one list at a time, unless there are separate link-fields for each simultaneous list.
590In \subref*{f:WrappedRef}, a @req@ can appear multiple times on the same or different lists simultaneously, but since @req@ is shared via the pointer, care must be taken if updating data also occurs simultaneously, \eg concurrency.
591In \subref*{f:WrappedValue}, the @req@ is copied, which increases storage usage, but allows independent simultaneous changes;
592however, knowing which of the @req@ object is the true'' object becomes complex.
593\see*{\VRef{toc:lst:issue:simultaneity} for further discussion.}
594
595The implementation of @LIST_ENTRY@ uses a trick to find the links and the node containing the links.
596The macro @LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&reqs, &r2, d);@ takes the list header, a pointer to the node, and the offset of the link fields in the node.
597One of the fields generated by @LIST_ENTRY@ is a pointer to the node, which is set to the node address, \eg @r2@.
598Hence, the offset to the link fields provides an access to the entire node, \ie the node points at itself.
599For list traversal, @LIST_FOREACH(cur, &reqs_pri, by_pri)@, there is the node cursor, the list, and the offset of the link fields within the node.
600The traversal actually moves from link fields to link fields within a node and sets the node cursor from the pointer within the link fields back to the node.
601
602A further aspect of layout control is allowing the user to explicitly specify link fields controlling attributes and placement within the @req@ object.
603LQ allows this ability through the @LIST_ENTRY@ macro\footnote{It is possible to have multiple named linked fields allowing a node to appear on multiple lists simultaneously.};
604supplying the link fields by inheritance makes them implicit and relies on compiler placement, such as the start or end of @req@.
605An example of an explicit attribute is cache alignment of the link fields in conjunction with other @req@ fields, improving locality and/or avoiding false sharing.
606Wrapped reference has no control over the link fields, but the separate data allows some control;
607wrapped value has no control over data or links.
608
609Another subtle advantage of intrusive arrangement is that a reference to a user-level item (@req@) is sufficient to navigate or manage the item's membership.
610In LQ, \subref*{f:Intrusive}, a @req@ pointer is the right argument type for operations @LIST_NEXT@ or @LIST_REMOVE@;
611there is no distinguishing a @req@ from a @req@ in a list.''
612The same is not true of STL, \subref*{f:WrappedRef} or \subref*{f:WrappedValue}.
613There, the analogous operations work on a parameter of type @list<T>::iterator@;
614they are @iterator::operator++()@, @iterator::operator*()@, and @list::erase(iterator)@.
615There is no mapping from @req &@ to @list<req>::iterator@, except for linear search.
616
617The advantage of wrapped attachment is the abstraction of a data item from its list membership(s).
618In the wrapped style, the @req@ type can come from a library that serves many independent uses,
619which generally have no need for listing.
620Then, a novel use can put @req@ in list, without requiring any upstream change in the @req@ library.
621In intrusive attachment, the ability to be listed must be planned during the definition of @req@.
622
623Finally, for wrapper reference a single node can appear at multiple places in the same list or different list, which might be useful in certain read-only cases.
624For intrusive and wrapper value, a node must be duplicated to appear at multiple locations, presenting additional cost.
625This scenario becomes difficult to imagine when the nodes are written because three link styles have issues.
626
627\begin{figure}
628    \lstinput[language=C++]{100-117}{lst-issues-attach-reduction.hpp}
629    \lstinput[language=C++]{150-150}{lst-issues-attach-reduction.hpp}
630    \caption{
631        Reduction of wrapped attachment to intrusive attachment.
632        Illustrated by pseudocode implementation of an STL-compatible API fragment
633        using LQ as the underlying implementation.
634        The gap that makes it pseudocode is that
635        the LQ C macros do not expand to valid C++ when instantiated with template parameters---there is no \lstinline{struct El}.
636        When using a custom-patched version of LQ to work around this issue,
637        the programs of Figure~\ref{f:WrappedRef} and \protect\subref*{f:WrappedValue} work with this shim in place of real STL.
638        Their executions lead to the same memory layouts.
639    }
640    \label{fig:lst-issues-attach-reduction}
641\end{figure}
642
643Wrapped attachment has a straightforward reduction to intrusive attachment, illustrated in Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-attach-reduction}.
644This shim layer performs the implicit dynamic allocations that pure intrusion avoids.
645But there is no reduction going the other way.
646No shimming can cancel the allocations to which wrapped membership commits.
647
648So intrusion is a lower-level listing primitive.
649And so, the system design choice is not between forcing users to use intrusion or wrapping.
650The choice is whether or not to provide access to an allocation-free layer of functionality.
651A wrapped-primitive library like STL forces users to incur the costs of wrapping, whether or not they access its benefits.
652An intrusive-primitive library like LQ lets users choose when to make this tradeoff.
653
654
655\subsection{Simultaneity: Single vs.\ Multi-Static vs.\ Dynamic}
656\label{toc:lst:issue:simultaneity}
657
658\begin{figure}
659    \parbox[t]{3.5in} {
660        \lstinput[language=C++]{20-60}{lst-issues-multi-static.run.c}
661    }\parbox[t]{20in} {
662        ~\\
663        \includegraphics[page=1]{lst-issues-direct.pdf} \\
664        ~\\
665        \hspace*{1.5in}\includegraphics[page=2]{lst-issues-direct.pdf}
666    }
667    \caption{
668        Example of simultaneity using LQ lists.
669        The zoomed-out diagram (right/top) shows the complete multi-linked data structure.
670        This structure can navigate all requests in priority order, and navigate among requests with a common request value.
671        The zoomed-in diagram (right/bottom) shows how the link fields connect the nodes on different lists.
672    }
673    \label{fig:lst-issues-multi-static}
674\end{figure}
675
676\newterm{Simultaneity} deals with the question:
677In how many different lists can a node be stored, at the same time?
678Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-multi-static} shows an example that can traverse all requests in priority order (field @pri@) or navigate among requests with the same request value (field @rqr@).
679Each of by priority'' and by common request value'' is a separate list.
680For example, there is a single priority-list linked in order [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4], where nodes may have the same priority, and there are three common request-value lists combining requests with the same values: [42, 42], [17, 17, 17], and [99], giving four head nodes one for each list.
681The example shows a list can encompass all the nodes (by-priority) or only a subset of the nodes (three request-value lists).
682
683As stated, the limitation of intrusive attachment is knowing apriori how many groups of links are needed for the maximum number of simultaneous lists.
684Thus, the intrusive LQ example supports multiple, but statically many, link lists.
685Note, it is possible to reuse links for different purposes, \eg if a list in linked one at one time and another way at another time, and these times do not overlap, the two different linkings can use the same link fields.
686This feature is used in the \CFA runtime where a thread node may be on a blocked or running list, both never on both simultaneously.
687
688Now consider the STL in the wrapped-reference arrangement of Figure~\ref{f:WrappedRef}.
689Here it is possible to construct the same simultaneity by creating multiple STL lists, each pointing at the appropriate nodes.
690Each group of intrusive links become the links for each separate STL list.
691The upside is the unlimited number of a lists a node can be associated with simultaneously, any number of STL lists can be created dynamically.
692The downside is the dynamic allocation of the link nodes and managing multiple lists.
693Note, it might be possible to wrap the multiple lists in another type to hide this implementation issue.
694
695Now consider the STL in the wrapped-value arrangement of Figure~\ref{f:WrappedValue}.
696Again, it is possible to construct the same simultaneity by creating multiple STL lists, each copying the appropriate nodes, where the intrusive links become the links for each separate STL list.
697The upside is the same as for wrapped-reference arrangement with an unlimited number of a list bindings.
698The downside is the dynamic allocation and significant storage usage due to copying.
699As well, it is unclear how node updates work in this scenario, without some notation of ultimately merging node information.
700
701% https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/introduction-to-multi-linked-list/ -- example of building a bespoke multi-linked list out of STL primitives (providing indication that STL doesn't offer one); offers dynamic directionality by embedding vector<struct node*> pointers;
702
703% When allowing multiple static directions, frameworks differ in their ergonomics for
704% the typical case: when the user needs only one direction, vs.\ the atypical case, when the user needs several.
705% LQ's ergonomics are well-suited to the uncommon case of multiple list directions.
706% Its intrusion declaration and insertion operation both use a mandatory explicit parameter naming the direction.
707% This decision works well in Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-multi-static}, where the names @by_pri@ and @by_rqr@ work well,
708% but it clutters Figure~\ref{f:Intrusive}, where a contrived name must be invented and used.
709% The example uses @x@; @reqs@ would be a more readily ignored choice. \PAB{wording?}
710
711\uCpp offers an intrusive list that makes the opposite ergonomic choice.  TODO: elaborate on inheritance for first direction and acrobatics for subsequent directions.
712
713STL may seem to have similar ergonomics to LQ, but in fact, the current ergonomic distinction is not applicable there,
714where one static direction is enough to achieve multiple dynamic directions.
715Note that all options in Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-attach} have a \emph{variable} named @refs@
716just as both Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-multi-static} and Figure~(TODO~new) have \emph{variables} with names including @pri@ vs @rqr@.
717But only the intrusive model has this naming showing up within the definition of a structure.
718This lack of named parts of a structure lets Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-attach} \subref*{f:WrappedRef} and \subref*{f:WrappedValue}, just like \uCpp,
719insert into a list without mentioning a part's name, while only version \subref*{f:Intrusive} has to mention @x@ at this step.
720LQ demands this same extraneous part-naming when removing, iterating, and even asking for a neighbour.
721At issue in this distinction is whether an API that offers multiple static directions (and so requires these to be named differently)
722allows the sole direction (when several are not wanted) to be \emph{implicit}.
723\uCpp allows it, LQ does not, and STL does not have this question as applicable.
724
725
726\subsection{User integration: Preprocessed vs.\ Type-System Mediated}
727
728% example of poor error message due to LQ's preprocessed integration
729% programs/lst-issues-multi-static.run.c:46:1: error: expected identifier or '(' before 'do'
730%    46 | LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&reqs_rtr_42, &r42b, by_rqr);
731%       | ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
732%
733% ... not a wonderful example; it was a missing semicolon on the preceding line; but at least real
734
735
737\label{toc:lst:issue:ident}
738
739All examples so far have used distinct user-facing types:
740an item found in a list (type @req@, of variables like @r1@), and
741a list (type @reql@ or @list<req>@, of variables like @reqs@ or @reqs_rqr_42@).
742\see{Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-attach} and Figure~\ref{fig:lst-issues-multi-static}}
743The latter type is a head, and these examples are of headed lists.
744
745A bespoke pointer to next @req@'' implementation often omits the latter type.
746Such a list model is ad-hoc.
747
748In headed thinking, there are length-zero lists (heads with no elements), and an element can be listed or not listed.
749In ad-hoc thinking, there are no length-zero lists and every element belongs to a list of length at least one.
750\PAB{Create a figure for this.}
751
752By omitting the head, elements can enter into an adjacency relationship,
753without requiring that someone allocate room for the head of the possibly-resulting list,
754or being able to find a correct existing head.
755
756A head defines one or more element roles, among elements that share a transitive adjacency.
757First'' and last'' are element roles.
758One moment's first'' need not be the next moment's.
759
760There is a cost to maintaining these roles.
761A runtime component of this cost is evident in LQ's offering the choice of type generators @LIST@ vs.~@TAILQ@.
762Its @LIST@ maintains a first,'' but not a last;'' its @TAILQ@ maintains both roles.
763(Both types are doubly linked and an analogous choice is available for singly linked.)
764
765TODO: finish making this point
766
767See WIP in lst-issues-adhoc-*.ignore.*.
768
769The code-complexity component of the cost ...
770
771Ability to offer heads is good.  Point: Does maintaining a head mean that the user has to provide more state when manipulating the list?  Requiring the user to do so is bad, because the user may have lots of "list" typed variables in scope, and detecting that the user passed the wrong one requires testing all the listing edge cases.
772
773\subsection{End treatment: Uniform }
774
775
776\section{String}
777
778A string is a sequence of symbols, where the form of a symbol can vary significantly: 7/8-bit characters (ASCII/Latin-1), or 2/4/8-byte (UNICODE) characters/symbols or variable length (UTF-8/16/32) characters.
779A string can be read left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, and have stacked elements (Arabic).
780
781A C character constant is an ASCII/Latin-1 character enclosed in single-quotes, \eg @'x'@, @'@\textsterling@'@.
782A wide C character constant is the same, except prefixed by the letter @L@, @u@, or @U@, \eg @u'\u25A0'@ (black square), where the @\u@ identifies a universal character name.
783A character can be formed from an escape sequence, which expresses a non-typable character (@'\n'@), a delimiter character @'\''@, or a raw character @'\x2f'@.
784
785A character sequence is zero or more regular, wide, or escape characters enclosed in double-quotes @"xyz\n"@.
786The kind of characters in the string is denoted by a prefix: UTF-8 characters are prefixed by @u8@, wide characters are prefixed by @L@, @u@, or @U@.
787
788For UTF-8 string literals, the array elements have type @char@ and are initialized with the characters of the multibyte character sequences, \eg @u8"\xe1\x90\x87"@ (Canadian syllabics Y-Cree OO).
789For wide string literals prefixed by the letter @L@, the array elements have type @wchar_t@ and are initialized with the wide characters corresponding of the multibyte character sequence, \eg @L"abc@$\mu$@"@ and read/print using @wsanf@/@wprintf@.
790The value of a wide-character is implementation-defined, usually a UTF-16 character.
791For wide string literals prefixed by the letter @u@ or @U@, the array elements have type @char16_t@ or @char32_t@, respectively, and are initialized with wide characters corresponding to the multibyte character sequence, \eg @u"abc@$\mu$@"@, @U"abc@$\mu$@"@.
792The value of a @"u"@ character is an UTF-16 character;
793the value of a @"U"@ character is an UTF-32 character.
794The value of a string literal containing a multibyte character or escape sequence not represented in the execution character set is implementation-defined.
795
796C strings are null-terminated rather than maintaining a separate string length.
797\begin{quote}
798Technically, a string is an array whose elements are single characters.
799The compiler automatically places the null character @\0@ at the end of each such string, so programs can conveniently find the end.
800This representation means that there is no real limit to how long a string can be, but programs have to scan one completely to determine its length.
801\end{quote}
802Unfortunately, this design decision is both unsafe and inefficient.
803It is common error in C to forget the space in a character array for the terminator or overwrite the terminator, resulting in array overruns in string operations.
804The need to repeatedly scan an entire string to determine its length can result in significant cost, as it is not possible to cache the length in many cases.
805
806C strings are fixed size because arrays are used for the implementation.
807However, string manipulation commonly results in dynamically-sized temporary and final string values.
808As a result, storage management for C strings is a nightmare, quickly resulting in array overruns and incorrect results.
809
810Collectively, these design decisions make working with strings in C, awkward, time consuming, and very unsafe.
811While there are companion string routines that take the maximum lengths of strings to prevent array overruns, that means the semantics of the operation can fail because strings are truncated.
812Suffice it to say, C is not a go-to language for string applications, which is why \CC introduced the @string@ type.
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