Ignore:
Timestamp:
Apr 4, 2022, 7:47:48 PM (4 months ago)
Author:
Thierry Delisle <tdelisle@…>
Branches:
enum, master, pthread-emulation
Children:
f134c25
Parents:
1a9592a
Message:

Small changes to io and intro section.

File:
1 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • doc/theses/thierry_delisle_PhD/thesis/text/existing.tex

    r1a9592a rf2bc9fa  
    22Scheduling is the process of assigning resources to incomming requests.
    33A very common form of this is assigning available workers to work-requests.
    4 The need for scheduling is very common in Computer Science, \eg Operating Systems and Hypervisors schedule available CPUs, NICs schedule available bamdwith, but it is also common in other fields.
    5 For example, assmebly lines are an example of scheduling where parts needed assembly are assigned to line workers.
     4The need for scheduling is very common in Computer Science, \eg Operating Systems and Hypervisors schedule available CPUs, NICs schedule available bamdwith, but scheduling is also common in other fields.
     5For example, in assmebly lines assigning parts in need of assembly to line workers is a form of scheduling.
    66
    77In all these cases, the choice of a scheduling algorithm generally depends first and formost on how much information is available to the scheduler.
     
    1515
    1616\section{Naming Convention}
    17 Scheduling has been studied by various different communities concentrating on different incarnation of the same problems. As a result, their is no real naming convention for scheduling that is respected across these communities. For this document, I will use the term \newterm{task} to refer to the abstract objects being scheduled and the term \newterm{worker} to refer to the objects which will execute these tasks.
     17Scheduling has been studied by various different communities concentrating on different incarnation of the same problems. As a result, their is no real naming convention for scheduling that is respected across these communities. For this document, I will use the term \newterm{\Gls{at}} to refer to the abstract objects being scheduled and the term \newterm{\Gls{proc}} to refer to the objects which will execute these \glspl{at}.
    1818
    1919\section{Static Scheduling}
    20 Static schedulers require that tasks have their dependencies and costs explicitly and exhaustively specified prior schedule.
     20Static schedulers require that \glspl{at} have their dependencies and costs explicitly and exhaustively specified prior schedule.
    2121The scheduler then processes this input ahead of time and producess a \newterm{schedule} to which the system can later adhere.
    2222This approach is generally popular in real-time systems since the need for strong guarantees justifies the cost of supplying this information.
     
    2626
    2727\section{Dynamic Scheduling}
    28 It may be difficult to fulfill the requirements of static scheduler if dependencies are conditionnal. In this case, it may be preferable to detect dependencies at runtime. This detection effectively takes the form of halting or suspending a task with unfulfilled dependencies and adding one or more new task(s) to the system. The new task(s) have the responsability of adding the dependent task back in the system once completed. As a consequence, the scheduler may have an incomplete view of the system, seeing only tasks we no pending dependencies. Schedulers that support this detection at runtime are referred to as \newterm{Dynamic Schedulers}.
     28It may be difficult to fulfill the requirements of static scheduler if dependencies are conditionnal. In this case, it may be preferable to detect dependencies at runtime. This detection effectively takes the form of adding one or more new \gls{at}(s) to the system as their dependencies are resolved. As well as potentially halting or suspending a \gls{at} that dynamically detect unfulfilled dependencies. Each \gls{at} has the responsability of adding the dependent \glspl{at} back in the system once completed. As a consequence, the scheduler may have an incomplete view of the system, seeing only \glspl{at} we no pending dependencies. Schedulers that support this detection at runtime are referred to as \newterm{Dynamic Schedulers}.
    2929
    3030\subsection{Explicitly Informed Dynamic Schedulers}
    31 While dynamic schedulers do not have access to an exhaustive list of dependencies for a task, they may require to provide more or less information about each task, including for example: expected duration, required ressources, relative importance, etc. The scheduler can then use this information to direct the scheduling decisions. \cit{Examples of schedulers with more information} Precisely providing this information can be difficult for programmers, especially \emph{predicted} behaviour, and the scheduler may need to support some amount of imprecision in the provided information. For example, specifying that a tasks takes approximately 5 seconds to complete, rather than exactly 5 seconds. User provided information can also become a significant burden depending how the effort to provide the information scales with the number of tasks and there complexity. For example, providing an exhaustive list of files read by 5 tasks is an easier requirement the providing an exhaustive list of memory addresses accessed by 10'000 distinct tasks.
     31While dynamic schedulers do not have access to an exhaustive list of dependencies for a \gls{at}, they may require to provide more or less information about each \gls{at}, including for example: expected duration, required ressources, relative importance, etc. The scheduler can then use this information to direct the scheduling decisions. \cit{Examples of schedulers with more information} Precisely providing this information can be difficult for programmers, especially \emph{predicted} behaviour, and the scheduler may need to support some amount of imprecision in the provided information. For example, specifying that a \glspl{at} takes approximately 5 seconds to complete, rather than exactly 5 seconds. User provided information can also become a significant burden depending how the effort to provide the information scales with the number of \glspl{at} and there complexity. For example, providing an exhaustive list of files read by 5 \glspl{at} is an easier requirement the providing an exhaustive list of memory addresses accessed by 10'000 distinct \glspl{at}.
    3232
    3333Since the goal of this thesis is to provide a scheduler as a replacement for \CFA's existing \emph{uninformed} scheduler, Explicitly Informed schedulers are less relevant to this project. Nevertheless, some strategies are worth mentionnding.
    3434
    3535\subsubsection{Prority Scheduling}
    36 A commonly used information that schedulers used to direct the algorithm is priorities. Each Task is given a priority and higher-priority tasks are preferred to lower-priority ones. The simplest priority scheduling algorithm is to simply require that every task have a distinct pre-established priority and always run the available task with the highest priority. Asking programmers to provide an exhaustive set of unique priorities can be prohibitive when the system has a large number of tasks. It can therefore be diserable for schedulers to support tasks with identical priorities and/or automatically setting and adjusting priorites for tasks.
     36A commonly used information that schedulers used to direct the algorithm is priorities. Each Task is given a priority and higher-priority \glspl{at} are preferred to lower-priority ones. The simplest priority scheduling algorithm is to simply require that every \gls{at} have a distinct pre-established priority and always run the available \gls{at} with the highest priority. Asking programmers to provide an exhaustive set of unique priorities can be prohibitive when the system has a large number of \glspl{at}. It can therefore be diserable for schedulers to support \glspl{at} with identical priorities and/or automatically setting and adjusting priorites for \glspl{at}. The most common operating some variation on priorities with overlaps and dynamic priority adjustments. For example, Microsoft Windows uses a pair of priorities
     37\cit{https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/procthread/scheduling-priorities,https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/taskschd/taskschedulerschema-priority-settingstype-element}, one specified by users out of ten possible options and one adjusted by the system.
    3738
    3839\subsection{Uninformed and Self-Informed Dynamic Schedulers}
    39 Several scheduling algorithms do not require programmers to provide additionnal information on each task, and instead make scheduling decisions based solely on internal state and/or information implicitly gathered by the scheduler.
     40Several scheduling algorithms do not require programmers to provide additionnal information on each \gls{at}, and instead make scheduling decisions based solely on internal state and/or information implicitly gathered by the scheduler.
    4041
    4142
    4243\subsubsection{Feedback Scheduling}
    43 As mentionned, Schedulers may also gather information about each tasks to direct their decisions. This design effectively moves the scheduler to some extent into the realm of \newterm{Control Theory}\cite{wiki:controltheory}. This gathering does not generally involve programmers and as such does not increase programmer burden the same way explicitly provided information may. However, some feedback schedulers do offer the option to programmers to offer additionnal information on certain tasks, in order to direct scheduling decision. The important distinction being whether or not the scheduler can function without this additionnal information.
     44As mentionned, Schedulers may also gather information about each \glspl{at} to direct their decisions. This design effectively moves the scheduler to some extent into the realm of \newterm{Control Theory}\cite{wiki:controltheory}. This gathering does not generally involve programmers and as such does not increase programmer burden the same way explicitly provided information may. However, some feedback schedulers do offer the option to programmers to offer additionnal information on certain \glspl{at}, in order to direct scheduling decision. The important distinction being whether or not the scheduler can function without this additionnal information.
    4445
    4546
    4647\section{Work Stealing}\label{existing:workstealing}
    47 One of the most popular scheduling algorithm in practice (see~\ref{existing:prod}) is work-stealing. This idea, introduce by \cite{DBLP:conf/fpca/BurtonS81}, effectively has each worker work on its local tasks first, but allows the possibility for other workers to steal local tasks if they run out of tasks. \cite{DBLP:conf/focs/Blumofe94} introduced the more familiar incarnation of this, where each workers has queue of tasks to accomplish and workers without tasks steal tasks from random workers. (The Burton and Sleep algorithm had trees of tasks and stole only among neighbours). Blumofe and Leiserson also prove worst case space and time requirements for well-structured computations.
     48One of the most popular scheduling algorithm in practice (see~\ref{existing:prod}) is work-stealing. This idea, introduce by \cite{DBLP:conf/fpca/BurtonS81}, effectively has each worker work on its local \glspl{at} first, but allows the possibility for other workers to steal local \glspl{at} if they run out of \glspl{at}. \cite{DBLP:conf/focs/Blumofe94} introduced the more familiar incarnation of this, where each workers has queue of \glspl{at} to accomplish and workers without \glspl{at} steal \glspl{at} from random workers. (The Burton and Sleep algorithm had trees of \glspl{at} and stole only among neighbours). Blumofe and Leiserson also prove worst case space and time requirements for well-structured computations.
    4849
    4950Many variations of this algorithm have been proposed over the years\cite{DBLP:journals/ijpp/YangH18}, both optmizations of existing implementations and approaches that account for new metrics.
     
    5152\paragraph{Granularity} A significant portion of early Work Stealing research was concentrating on \newterm{Implicit Parellelism}\cite{wiki:implicitpar}. Since the system was responsible to split the work, granularity is a challenge that cannot be left to the programmers (as opposed to \newterm{Explicit Parellelism}\cite{wiki:explicitpar} where the burden can be left to programmers). In general, fine granularity is better for load balancing and coarse granularity reduces communication overhead. The best performance generally means finding a middle ground between the two. Several methods can be employed, but I believe these are less relevant for threads, which are generally explicit and more coarse grained.
    5253
    53 \paragraph{Task Placement} Since modern computers rely heavily on cache hierarchies\cit{Do I need a citation for this}, migrating tasks from one core to another can be .  \cite{DBLP:journals/tpds/SquillanteL93}
     54\paragraph{Task Placement} Since modern computers rely heavily on cache hierarchies\cit{Do I need a citation for this}, migrating \glspl{at} from one core to another can be .  \cite{DBLP:journals/tpds/SquillanteL93}
    5455
    5556\todo{The survey is not great on this subject}
     
    5859
    5960\subsection{Theoretical Results}
    60 There is also a large body of research on the theoretical aspects of work stealing. These evaluate, for example, the cost of migration\cite{DBLP:conf/sigmetrics/SquillanteN91,DBLP:journals/pe/EagerLZ86}, how affinity affects performance\cite{DBLP:journals/tpds/SquillanteL93,DBLP:journals/mst/AcarBB02,DBLP:journals/ipl/SuksompongLS16} and theoretical models for heterogenous systems\cite{DBLP:journals/jpdc/MirchandaneyTS90,DBLP:journals/mst/BenderR02,DBLP:conf/sigmetrics/GastG10}. \cite{DBLP:journals/jacm/BlellochGM99} examine the space bounds of Work Stealing and \cite{DBLP:journals/siamcomp/BerenbrinkFG03} show that for underloaded systems, the scheduler will complete computations in finite time, \ie is \newterm{stable}. Others show that Work-Stealing is applicable to various scheduling contexts\cite{DBLP:journals/mst/AroraBP01,DBLP:journals/anor/TchiboukdjianGT13,DBLP:conf/isaac/TchiboukdjianGTRB10,DBLP:conf/ppopp/AgrawalLS10,DBLP:conf/spaa/AgrawalFLSSU14}. \cite{DBLP:conf/ipps/ColeR13} also studied how Randomized Work Stealing affects false sharing among tasks.
     61There is also a large body of research on the theoretical aspects of work stealing. These evaluate, for example, the cost of migration\cite{DBLP:conf/sigmetrics/SquillanteN91,DBLP:journals/pe/EagerLZ86}, how affinity affects performance\cite{DBLP:journals/tpds/SquillanteL93,DBLP:journals/mst/AcarBB02,DBLP:journals/ipl/SuksompongLS16} and theoretical models for heterogenous systems\cite{DBLP:journals/jpdc/MirchandaneyTS90,DBLP:journals/mst/BenderR02,DBLP:conf/sigmetrics/GastG10}. \cite{DBLP:journals/jacm/BlellochGM99} examine the space bounds of Work Stealing and \cite{DBLP:journals/siamcomp/BerenbrinkFG03} show that for underloaded systems, the scheduler will complete computations in finite time, \ie is \newterm{stable}. Others show that Work-Stealing is applicable to various scheduling contexts\cite{DBLP:journals/mst/AroraBP01,DBLP:journals/anor/TchiboukdjianGT13,DBLP:conf/isaac/TchiboukdjianGTRB10,DBLP:conf/ppopp/AgrawalLS10,DBLP:conf/spaa/AgrawalFLSSU14}. \cite{DBLP:conf/ipps/ColeR13} also studied how Randomized Work Stealing affects false sharing among \glspl{at}.
    6162
    6263However, as \cite{DBLP:journals/ijpp/YangH18} highlights, it is worth mentionning that this theoretical research has mainly focused on ``fully-strict'' computations, \ie workloads that can be fully represented with a Direct Acyclic Graph. It is unclear how well these distributions represent workloads in real world scenarios.
    6364
    6465\section{Preemption}
    65 One last aspect of scheduling worth mentionning is preemption since many schedulers rely on it for some of their guarantees. Preemption is the idea of interrupting tasks that have been running for too long, effectively injecting suspend points in the applications. There are multiple techniques to achieve this but they all aim to have the effect of guaranteeing that suspend points in a task are never further apart than some fixed duration. While this helps schedulers guarantee that no tasks will unfairly monopolize a worker, preemption can effectively added to any scheduler. Therefore, the only interesting aspect of preemption for the design of scheduling is whether or not to require it.
     66One last aspect of scheduling worth mentionning is preemption since many schedulers rely on it for some of their guarantees. Preemption is the idea of interrupting \glspl{at} that have been running for too long, effectively injecting suspend points in the applications. There are multiple techniques to achieve this but they all aim to have the effect of guaranteeing that suspend points in a \gls{at} are never further apart than some fixed duration. While this helps schedulers guarantee that no \glspl{at} will unfairly monopolize a worker, preemption can effectively added to any scheduler. Therefore, the only interesting aspect of preemption for the design of scheduling is whether or not to require it.
    6667
    6768\section{Schedulers in Production}\label{existing:prod}
     
    6970
    7071\subsection{Operating System Schedulers}
    71 Operating System Schedulers tend to be fairly complex schedulers, they generally support some amount of real-time, aim to balance interactive and non-interactive tasks and support for multiple users sharing hardware without requiring these users to cooperate. Here are more details on a few schedulers used in the common operating systems: Linux, FreeBsd, Microsoft Windows and Apple's OS X. The information is less complete for operating systems behind closed source.
     72Operating System Schedulers tend to be fairly complex schedulers, they generally support some amount of real-time, aim to balance interactive and non-interactive \glspl{at} and support for multiple users sharing hardware without requiring these users to cooperate. Here are more details on a few schedulers used in the common operating systems: Linux, FreeBsd, Microsoft Windows and Apple's OS X. The information is less complete for operating systems behind closed source.
    7273
    7374\paragraph{Linux's CFS}
    74 The default scheduler used by Linux (the Completely Fair Scheduler)\cite{MAN:linux/cfs,MAN:linux/cfs2} is a feedback scheduler based on CPU time. For each processor, it constructs a Red-Black tree of tasks waiting to run, ordering them by amount of CPU time spent. The scheduler schedules the task that has spent the least CPU time. It also supports the concept of \newterm{Nice values}, which are effectively multiplicative factors on the CPU time spent. The ordering of tasks is also impacted by a group based notion of fairness, where tasks belonging to groups having spent less CPU time are preferred to tasks beloning to groups having spent more CPU time. Linux achieves load-balancing by regularly monitoring the system state\cite{MAN:linux/cfs/balancing} and using some heuristic on the load (currently CPU time spent in the last millisecond plus decayed version of the previous time slots\cite{MAN:linux/cfs/pelt}.).
     75The default scheduler used by Linux (the Completely Fair Scheduler)\cite{MAN:linux/cfs,MAN:linux/cfs2} is a feedback scheduler based on CPU time. For each processor, it constructs a Red-Black tree of \glspl{at} waiting to run, ordering them by amount of CPU time spent. The scheduler schedules the \gls{at} that has spent the least CPU time. It also supports the concept of \newterm{Nice values}, which are effectively multiplicative factors on the CPU time spent. The ordering of \glspl{at} is also impacted by a group based notion of fairness, where \glspl{at} belonging to groups having spent less CPU time are preferred to \glspl{at} beloning to groups having spent more CPU time. Linux achieves load-balancing by regularly monitoring the system state\cite{MAN:linux/cfs/balancing} and using some heuristic on the load (currently CPU time spent in the last millisecond plus decayed version of the previous time slots\cite{MAN:linux/cfs/pelt}.).
    7576
    76 \cite{DBLP:conf/eurosys/LoziLFGQF16} shows that Linux's CFS also does work-stealing to balance the workload of each processors, but the paper argues this aspect can be improved significantly. The issues highlighted sem to stem from Linux's need to support fairness across tasks \emph{and} across users\footnote{Enforcing fairness across users means, for example, that given two users: one with a single task and the other with one thousand tasks, the user with a single task does not receive one one thousandth of the CPU time.}, increasing the complexity.
     77\cite{DBLP:conf/eurosys/LoziLFGQF16} shows that Linux's CFS also does work-stealing to balance the workload of each processors, but the paper argues this aspect can be improved significantly. The issues highlighted sem to stem from Linux's need to support fairness across \glspl{at} \emph{and} across users\footnote{Enforcing fairness across users means, for example, that given two users: one with a single \gls{at} and the other with one thousand \glspl{at}, the user with a single \gls{at} does not receive one one thousandth of the CPU time.}, increasing the complexity.
    7778
    78 Linux also offers a FIFO scheduler, a real-time schedulerwhich runs the highest-priority task, and a round-robin scheduler, which is an extension of the fifo-scheduler that adds fixed time slices. \cite{MAN:linux/sched}
     79Linux also offers a FIFO scheduler, a real-time schedulerwhich runs the highest-priority \gls{at}, and a round-robin scheduler, which is an extension of the fifo-scheduler that adds fixed time slices. \cite{MAN:linux/sched}
    7980
    8081\paragraph{FreeBSD}
     
    8283
    8384\paragraph{Windows(OS)}
    84 Microsoft's Operating System's Scheduler\cite{MAN:windows/scheduler} is a feedback scheduler with priorities. It supports 32 levels of priorities, some of which are reserved for real-time and prviliged applications. It schedules tasks based on the highest priorities (lowest number) and how much cpu time each tasks have used. The scheduler may also temporarily adjust priorities after certain effects like the completion of I/O requests.
     85Microsoft's Operating System's Scheduler\cite{MAN:windows/scheduler} is a feedback scheduler with priorities. It supports 32 levels of priorities, some of which are reserved for real-time and prviliged applications. It schedules \glspl{at} based on the highest priorities (lowest number) and how much cpu time each \glspl{at} have used. The scheduler may also temporarily adjust priorities after certain effects like the completion of I/O requests.
    8586
    8687\todo{load balancing}
     
    99100
    100101\subsection{User-Level Schedulers}
    101 By comparison, user level schedulers tend to be simpler, gathering fewer metrics and avoid complex notions of fairness. Part of the simplicity is due to the fact that all tasks have the same user, and therefore cooperation is both feasible and probable.
     102By comparison, user level schedulers tend to be simpler, gathering fewer metrics and avoid complex notions of fairness. Part of the simplicity is due to the fact that all \glspl{at} have the same user, and therefore cooperation is both feasible and probable.
    102103\paragraph{Go}
    103104Go's scheduler uses a Randomized Work Stealing algorithm that has a global runqueue(\emph{GRQ}) and each processor(\emph{P}) has both a fixed-size runqueue(\emph{LRQ}) and a high-priority next ``chair'' holding a single element.\cite{GITHUB:go,YTUBE:go} Preemption is present, but only at function call boundaries.
     
    116117
    117118\paragraph{Intel\textregistered ~Threading Building Blocks}
    118 \newterm{Thread Building Blocks}(TBB) is Intel's task parellelism\cite{wiki:taskparallel} framework. It runs tasks or \newterm{jobs}, schedulable objects that must always run to completion, on a pool of worker threads. TBB's scheduler is a variation of Randomized Work Stealing that also supports higher-priority graph-like dependencies\cite{MAN:tbb/scheduler}. It schedules tasks as follows (where \textit{t} is the last task completed):
     119\newterm{Thread Building Blocks}(TBB) is Intel's task parellelism\cite{wiki:taskparallel} framework. It runs \newterm{jobs}, uninterruptable \glspl{at}, schedulable objects that must always run to completion, on a pool of worker threads. TBB's scheduler is a variation of Randomized Work Stealing that also supports higher-priority graph-like dependencies\cite{MAN:tbb/scheduler}. It schedules \glspl{at} as follows (where \textit{t} is the last \gls{at} completed):
    119120\begin{displayquote}
    120121        \begin{enumerate}
     
    136137
    137138\paragraph{Grand Central Dispatch}
    138 This is an API produce by Apple\cit{Official GCD source} that offers task parellelism\cite{wiki:taskparallel}. Its distinctive aspect is that it uses multiple ``Dispatch Queues'', some of which are created by programmers. These queues each have their own local ordering guarantees, \eg tasks on queue $A$ are executed in \emph{FIFO} order.
     139This is an API produce by Apple\cit{Official GCD source} that offers task parellelism\cite{wiki:taskparallel}. Its distinctive aspect is that it uses multiple ``Dispatch Queues'', some of which are created by programmers. These queues each have their own local ordering guarantees, \eg \glspl{at} on queue $A$ are executed in \emph{FIFO} order.
    139140
    140141\todo{load balancing and scheduling}
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.